USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Effects of Fire in the Northern Great Plains

Literature Cited


Ahlgren, C.E. 1966. Small mammals and reforestation following prescribed burning. 
     J For 64:614-618.

Ahlgren, C.E. 1974. Effects of fires on temperate forests: Northcentral United 
     States. Pp 195-223 In T.T. Kozlowski and C.E. Ahlgren (eds), Fire and 
     ecosystems. Academic Press, New York.

Ahlgren, I.F., and C.E. Ahlgren. 1960. Ecological effects of forest fires. Bot 
     Rev 26:483-533.

Aldous, A.E. 1934. Effects of burning on Kansas bluestem pastures. Kansas AES 
     Tech Bull 38, 65 pp.

Allen L.J., L.H. Harbers, R.R. Schalles, C.E. Owensby, and E.F. Smith. 1976. 
     Range burning and fertilizing related to nutritive value of bluestem grasses. 
     J Range Manage 29:306-308.

Ammann, G.A. 1957. Prairie grouse of Michigan. Michigan Dept Conserv Tech Bull, 
     200 pp.

Anderson, H.G., and A.W. Bailey. 1980. Effects of annual burning on grassland in 
     the aspen parkland of east-central Alberta. Can J Bot 58:985-996.

Anderson, K.L., E.F. Smith, and C.E. Owensby. 1970. Burning bluestem range. J 
     Range Manage 23:81-92.

Anderson, M.L., and A.W. Bailey. 1979. Effect of fire on a Symphoricarpos 
     occidentalis shrub community in cental Alberta. Can J Bot 57:2819-2823.

Anderson R.K. 1969. Prairie chicken responses to changing booming-ground cover 
     type and height. J Wildl Manage 33:636-643.

Arefyeva, Z.N., and B.P. Kolesnikov. 1964. Dynamics of ammonia and nitrate 
     nitrogen in forest soils of the Transurals at high and low temperatures. Sov 
     Soil Sci 3:246-260.

Arnett, W.H. 1960. Responses of acridid populations to range land practices and 
     range sites. Unpbl PhD dissertation. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, 114 pp.

Arnold, G.W., and J.L. Hill. 1972. Chemical factors affecting selection of food 
     plants by ruminants. Pp 72-99 In J.B. Harborne (ed), Phytochemical ecology, 
     Academic Press, London, LTD, 272 pp.

Bailey, A.W. 1976. Alberta's range land resources. Rangemans J. 3:44-46.

Bailey, A.W. 1978. Effects of fire on the mixed prairie vegetation. Proc, 
     Prairie Prescribed Burning Symposium and Workshop, U.S. For Serv, Bur 
     Land Manage, and USFWS, Jamestown, ND, 5 pp.

Bailey, A.W., and R.W. Wroe. 1974. Aspen invasion in a portion of the Alberta 
     Parklands. J Range Manage 27:263-266.

Ball, J.P. 1984. Habitat selection and optimal foraging by mallards: a field 
     experiment. MS thesis, Univ of Guelph, Ontario, 44 pp.

Banks, R.C., R.W. MeDiarmid, and A.L. Gardner. 1987. Checklist of vertebrates of 
     the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada. USFWS Resour Publ 166, 
     79 pp.

Barney, M.A., and N.C. Frischkneckt. 1974. Vegetation changes following fire in 
     the pinyon-juniper type of west-central Utah. J Range Manage 27:91-96.

Beck, A.M., and R.J. Vogl. 1972. Effects of spring burning on rodent populations 
     in a brush prairie savanna. J Mamm 53:336-346.

Beetle, A.A., and K.L. Johnson. 1982. Sagebrush in Wyoming. Wyoming AES Bull 
     B-779, 68 pp.

Bendell, J.F. 1974. Effects of fire on birds and mammals. Pp 73-138 In T.T. Kozlowski 
    and C.E. Ahlgren (eds), Fire and ecosystems, Academic Press, New York.

Bent, A.C. 1923. Life histories of North American wildfowl. U.S. Nat Mus Bull, 
     126 pp.

Best, L.B. 1979. Effects of fire on a field sparrow population. Am Midl Nat 
     101:434-442.

Beule, J.D. 1979. Control and management of cattails in southeastern Wisconsin 
     wetlands. Wisconsin Dept Nat Resour Tech Bull 112, 41 pp.

Bock, C.E., and J.H. Bock. 1978. Response of birds, small mammals and vegetation 
     to burning sacaton grasslands in south eastern Arizona. J Range Manage 
     31:296-300.

Bock, C.E., and J.H. Bock. 1983. Responses of birds and deer mice to prescribed 
     burning in ponderosa pine. J Wildl Manage 47:836-840.

Bock, J.H., and C.E. Bock. 1984. Effects of fire on woody vegetation in the 
     pine-grassland ecotone of the southern Black Hills. Am Midl Nat 112:35-42.

Bragg, T.B. 1982. Seasonal variations in fuel and fuel consumption by fires in 
     a bluestem prairie. Ecology 63:7-11.

Bragg, T.B., and L.C. Hulbert. 1976. Woody plant invasion of unburned Kansas 
     bluestem prairie. J Range Manage 29:19-24.

Braun, C.E., T. Britt, and R.O. Wallestad. 1977. Guidelines for maintenance of 
     sage grouse habitats. Wildl Soc Bull 5:99-106.

Bunting, S.C., H.A. Wright, and L.F. Neuenschwander. 1980. Long-term effects of 
     fire on cactus in the southern mixed prairie of Texas. J Range Manage 
     33:85-88.

Burns, P.Y. 1952. Effects of fire on forest soils in the Pine Barren region of 
     New Jersey. Yale Univ School of Forestry Bull 57, 50 pp.

Cancelado, R., and T.R. Yonke. 1970. Effect of prairie burning on insect 
     populations. J Kans Entomol Soc 43:274-281.

Chew, R.M., B.B. Butterworth, and R. Grechman. 1958. Effects of fire on the small 
     mammal populations of chaparral. J Mamm 40:235.

Christensen, N.L. 1976. Short-term effects of mowing and burning on soil nutrients 
     in Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park. J Range Manage 29:508-509.

Clark, R.G., C.M. Britton, and F.A. Sneva. 1982. Mortality of bitterbrush 
     after burning and clipping in eastern Oregon. J Range Manage 35:711-714.

Clarke, S.E., E.W. Tisdale, and N.A. Skoglund. 1943. Effects of climate and 
     grazing on short grass prairie vegetation. Canada Dept Agric Tech Bull 46, 
     53 pp.

Cluff, G.J., J.A. Young, and R.A. Evans. 1983. Edaphic factors influencing the
     control of Wyoming big sagebrush and seedling establishment of crested 
     wheatgrass. J Range Manage 36:786-792.

Cook, S.F., Jr. 1959.  Effect of a fire on a population of small rodents. Ecology 
     40:102-108.

Coupland, R.T. 1973. Producers: I. Dynamics of above-ground standing crop. 
     Matador Project, Canadian IBP Prog Tech Rep 27, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, 
     159 pp.

Cross, D.H. 1983. Wildlife habitat improvement by control of Phragmites communis
     with fire and herbicide. MS thesis, CSU, Fort Collins, 81 pp.

Curtis, J.T., and M.L. Partch. 1948. Effect of fire on the competition between 
     blue grass and certain prairie plants. Am Mid Nat 39:437-443.

Curtis, J.T., and M.L. Partch. 1950. Some factors affecting flower production 
     in Andropogon gerardi Ecology 31:488-489.

Dasmann, W., R. Hubbard, W.G. MacGregor, and A.E. Smith. 1968. Evaluation of 
     the wildlife results from fuel breaks, browseways, and type conversion. 
     Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 7:179-193.

Daubenmire, R. 1968. Ecology of fire in grasslands. Pp 209-266 In J.B. Cragg 
     (ed), Advances in ecological research, vol 5, Academic Press, New York.

DeBano, L.F., and C.E. Conrad. 1978. Effect of fire on nutrients in a chaparral 
     ecosystem. Ecology 59:489-497.

DeBell, D.S., and C.W. Ralston. 1970. Release of nitrogen by burning light 
     forest fuels. Proc, Soil Sci Soc Amer 34:936-938.

DeByle, N.V. 1976. Soil fertility as affected by broadcast burning following 
     clearcutting in Northern Rocky Mountain larch/fir forests. Proc, Tall 
     Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 14:447-464.

DeByle, N.V. 1985. Managing wildlife habitat with fire in the aspen ecosystem. 
     In J.E. Lotan and J.K. Brown (eds), Fire's effects on wildlife habitat, 
     symposium proceedings, U.S. For Serv Gen Tech Rep INT-186, 96 pp.

DeJong, E., and K.B. MacDonald. 1975. Soil moisture regime under native grassland. 
     Geoderma 14:207-221.

Dietz, D.R. 1972. Nutritive value of shrubs. Pp 289-310 In C.M McKell, J.P. 
     Blaisde, and J.R. Goodin(eds), Wildland shrubs, their biology and utilization. 
     U.S. For Serv, Intermt For Range Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep INT-1, 494 pp.

Diiro, B.W. 1982. Effects of burning and mowing on seasonal whitetop ponds in 
     southern Manitoba. MS thesis, Iowa State Univ, Ames, 48 pp.

Dills, G.G. 1970. Effects of prescribed burning on deer browse. J Wildl Manage 
     34:540-545.

Dix, R.L. 1960. Effects of burning on the mulch structure and species composition 
     of grasslands in western North Dakota. Ecology 41:49-56.

Dodd, J.L., J.D. Rodgers, and B.S. Mihlbachler. 1985. Effects of fall and spring 
     burning on available forage production, soil water balance, and cactus 
     mortality in high density cactus-rangelands of eastern Wyoming. Abstracts, 
     38th ann mtg, Soc Range Manage, Feb 11-15, 1985, Salt Lake City, UT, p 56.

Drew, M.L., W.M. Samuel, G.M. Lukiwski, and J.N. Willman. 1985. Evaluation of 
     burning for control of winter ticks (Dermacentor albicuptus) in central Alberta. 
     J Wildl Diseases 21:313-315.

Dunn, P.H., and L.F. DeBano. 1977. Fires effect on the biological properties of 
     chaparral soils. Pp 75-84 In Proc, Int Symp, Environmental Consequences of 
     Fire and Fuel Management in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems (Forests and 
     Scrublands), U.S. For Serv Gen Tech Rep WO-3.

Duvall, V.L., and L.B. Whitaker. 1964. Rotation burning: a forage management system 
     for longleaf pine-bluestem ranges. J Range Manage 17:222-226.

Dwyer, D.D., and RD. Pieper. 1967. Fire effects on blue grama-pinyon-juniper 
     rangeland in New Mexico. J Range Manage 20:359-362.

Dziadyk, B., and G.K. Clambey. 1980. Vegetation studies in the prairie-forest 
     transition region: IV, Effect of burning on net production of a western 
     Minnesota tall grass prairie. Proc ND Acad Sci 34:21.

Edwards, W.R., and J.A. Ellis. 1969. Responses of three avian species to burning. 
     Wilson Bull 81:338-339.

Ehrenreich, J.H. 1959. Effect of burning and clipping on growth of native prairie 
     in Iowa. J Range Manage 12:133-137.

Ehrenreich, J.H., and J.M. Aikman. 1957. Effect of burning on seedstalk production 
     of native prairie grasses. Iowa Acad Sci 64:205-212.

Ehrenreich, J.H.. and J.M. Aikman. 1963. Ecological study of the effect of certain
     management practices on native prairie in Iowa. Ecol Monogr 33:113-130.

Eichhorn, L.C., and C.R. Watts. 1984. Plant succession on burns in the river 
    breaks of central Montana. Proc, MT Acad Sci 43:21-34.

Ellis, J.A., W.R. Edwards, and K.P. Thomas. 1969. Responses of bobwhites to 
     management in Illinois. J Wildl Manage 33:749-762.

Ellis, J.E., J.A. Wiens, C.F. Rodel, and J.C. Anway. 1976. Conceptual model of 
     diet selection as an ecosystem process. J Theor Bio 60:93-108.

Engle, D.M., and P.M. Bultsma. 1984. Burning of northern mixed prairie during 
     drought. J Range Manage 37:398-401.

Erwin, W.J., and R.H. Stasiak. 1979. Vertebrate mortality during the burning of 
     a reestablished prairie in Nebraska. Am Midl Nat 101:247-249.

Ethridge. D.E., R.G. Sudderth, and H.A. Wright. 1985. Economic returns from 
     burning tobasagrass in the Texas rolling plains. J Range Manage 38:362-365.

Evans, C.D., and K.E. Black. 1956. Duck production studies on the prairie potholes
     of South Dakota. USFWS Spec Sci Rep, Wildl 32, 59 pp.

Fala, R.A. 1975. Effects of prescribed burning on small mammal populations in a 
     mixed-oak clearcut. J For 73:586-587.

Ferguson, E.R. 1957. Stem-kill and sprouting following prescribed fires in a 
     pine-hardwood stand in Texas. J For 55:426-429.

Forde, J.D., N.F. Sloan, and D.A. Shown. 1984. Grassland habitat management using 
     prescribed burning in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. Prairie Nat 
     16:97-110.

Fraps, G.S., and V.L. Cory. 1940. Composition and utilization of range vegetation 
     of Sutton and Edwards counties, Texas AES Bull 586.

Fritzell, E.K. 1975. Effects of agricultural burning on nesting waterfowl. Can 
     Field-Nat 89:21-27.

Gartner, F.R., and W.W. Thompson. 1973. Fire in the Black Hills forest-grass ecotone. 
     Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 12:37-68.

Gartner, F.R., and E.M. White. 1986. Fire in the northern Great Plains and its use 
     in management. Pp 13-21 In Proc, Prescribed Fire and Smoke Management Symposium, 
     Feb 13, 1986 (Kissiminee, Fla), Soc Range Manage, Denver.

Gartner, F.R., J.R. Lindsey, and E.M. White. 1986. Vegetation responses to spring 
     burning in western South Dakota. Proc, 9th N.A. Prairie Conf 9:143-146.

Gartner, F.R., R.I. Butterfield, W.W. Thompson, and L.R. Roath. 1978. Prescribed 
     burning of range ecosystems in South Dakota. Proc, First Int Range Congr 1:
     687-690.

Gashwiler, J.S. 1970. Plant and mammal changes on a clearcut in west-central 
     Oregon. Ecology 51:1018-1026.

Girard, M.M. 1985. Native wood land ecology and habitat type classification of 
     southwestern North Dakota. PhD thesis, North Dakota State Univ, Fargo, 331 pp.

Glover, F.A. 1956. Nesting and production of the blue-winged teal in northwest 
     Iowa. J Wildl Manage 20:28-46.

Glover, P.E. 1972. Nature, wildlife, and the habitat with a discussion on fires 
     and other influences. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 11:319-336.

Goatcher, W.D., and D.C. Church. 1970. Review of some nutritional aspects of the 
     sense of taste. J Anim Sci 31:973-981.

Gordon, F.A. 1976. Spring burning in an aspen-conifer stand of moose habitat, West 
     Boulder River, Montana. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 14:501-538.

Gorenzel, W.P., R.A. Ryder, and C.E. Braun. 1981. American coot response to habitat 
     change on a Colorado marsh. Southwest Nat 26:59-65.

Grange, W.B. 1949. Way to game abundance. Charles Scribner's & Sons, New York, 
     365 pp.

Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Uni Press of 
     Kansas, Lawrence.

Greene, S.W. 1929. Stockman's interest in protecting forest and range from fire. 
     For Long Proc 33:338-344.

Gruell, G.E. 1983. Fire and vegetative trend in the northern Rockies:  
     interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs. U.S. For Serv Gen Tech Rep 
     INT-158, 117 pp.

Hadley, E.B. 1970. Net productivity and burning responses of native eastern 
     North Dakota prairie communities. Am Midl Nat 84:121-135.

Hadley, E.B., and R.P. Buccos. 1967. Plant community composition and net primary 
     production within native eastern North Dakota prairie. Am Midl Nat 77:116-127.

Hadley, E.B., and B.J. Kieckhefer. 1963. Productivity of two prairie grasses in 
     relation to fire frequency. Ecology 44:389-395.

Halls, L.K., B.L. Southwell, and F.E. Knox. 1952. Burning and grazing in coastal 
     plain forest. Georgia AES Bull 51, 33 pp.

Handley, C.O., Jr. 1969. Fire and mammals. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 
     9:151-159.

Hansen, P.L., G.R. Hoffmann, and A.J. Bjugstad. 1984. Vegetation of Theodore 
     Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota: a habitat type classification. USDA 
     For Serv, Rocky Mt For and Range Exp Stn, Gen Tech Rep RM-113, 35 pp.

Hardison, J.R. 1980. Role of fire for disease control in grass seed production. 
     Plant Disease 64:641-645.

Harniss, R.O., and R.B. Murray. 1973. Thirty years of vegetal change following 
     burning of sagebrush-grass range. J Range Manage 26:322-325.

Harvey, A.E., M.F. Jurgensen, and M.J. Larsen. 1976. Intensive fiber utilization 
     and prescribed fire: effects on the microbial ecology of forests. U.S. For 
     Serv, Intermt For and Range Exp Stn, Gen Tech Rep INT-28, 46 pp.

Hayes, W.P. 1927. Prairie insects. Ecology 8:238-250.

Heitlinger, M.E. 1975. Burning a protected tallgrass prairie to suppress 
     sweetclover, Melilotus alba Desr. Pp 123-130 In M.K. Wali (ed), Prairie: a 
     multiple view, U of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks.

Hensel, R.L. 1923. Recent studies on the effect of burning on grassland vegetation. 
     Ecology 4:183-188.

Hickey, V.G., and R.D. Ensign. 1983. Kentucky bluegrass seed production 
     characteristics as affected by residue management. Agron J 75:107-110.

Higgins, K.F. 1986a. Interpretation and compendium of historical fire accounts 
     in the Northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serv, Resourc Publ 161. 39 pp.

Higgins, K.F. 1986b. Comparison of burn season effects on nesting birds in 
     North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Prairie Nat 18:219-228.

Hilmon, J.B., and R.H. Hughes. 1965. Fire and forage in the wiregrass type. 
     J Range Manage 18:251-254.

Hobbs, N.T., and R.A. Spowart. 1984. Effects of prescribed fire on nutrition 
     of mountain sheep and mule deer during winter and spring. J Wildl Manage 
     48:551-560.

Hobbs, N.T., and D.M. Swift. 1985. Estimates of habitat carrying capacity 
     incorporating explicit nutritional constraints. J Wildl Manage 49:814-822.

Hopkins, H.F., W. Albertson, and A. Riegel. 1948. Some effects of burning upon a 
     prairie in west central Kansas. Trans, Kansas Acad Sci 51:131-141.

Hopkins, H.H. 1954. Effects of mulch upon certain factors of grassland environment. 
     J Range Manage 7:255-258.

Howard, W.E., R.L. Fenner, and H.E. Childs, Jr. 1959. Wildlife survival in 
     brush burns. J Range Manage 12:230-234.

Huber, G.E., and A.A. Steuter. 1984. Vegetation profile and grassland bird 
     response to spring burning. Prairie Nat 16:55-61.

Hulbert, L.C. 1969. Fire and litter effects in undisturbed bluestem prairie 
     in Kansas. Ecology 50:874-877.

Irwin, L.L. 1975. Deer-moose relationships on a burn in northeastern Minnesota. 
     J Wildl Manage 39:653-662.

Isaac, L.A., and H.G. Hopkins. 1937. Forest soil of the Douglas-fir region, 
     and changes wrought upon it by logging and slash burning. Ecology 18:
     264-279.

Ivey, T.L., and M.K. Causey. 1984. Response of white-tailed deer to prescribed 
     burning. Wildl Soc Bull 12:138-141.

Jenkinson, D.S. 1966. Studies on the decomposition of plant material in soil: 
     11. Partial sterilization of soil and the soil biomass. J Soil Sci 17:280-302.

Johnson, A.H., and R.M. Strang. 1983. Burning in bunch grass/sagebrush community: 
     The southern interior of British Columbia and northwestern United States 
     compared. J Range Manage 36:616-618.

Johnson, D.R. 1961. Food habits of rodents on rangelands of southern Idaho. 
     Ecology 42:407-410.

Julander, O., W.L. Robinette, and D.A. Jones. 1961. Relation of summer range 
     condition to mule deer herd productivity. J Wildl Manage 25:54-60.

Jurgensen, M.F., M.J. Larsen, and A.E. Harvey. 1979. Forest soil biology-timber 
     harvesting relationships. U.S. For Serv, Intermt For and Range Exp
     Stn, Gen Tech Rep INT-69, 12 pp.

Kantrud, H.A. 1986. Effects of vegetation manipulation on breeding waterfowl in 
     prairie wetlands, a literature review. USFWS Tech Rep 3, 15 pp.

Kaufman, D.W., G.A. Kaufman, and E.J. Finck. 1983. Effects of fire on rodents in 
     tallgrass prairie of the Flint Hills region of eastern Kansas. Prairie Nat 
     15:49-56.

Keith, L.B. 1961. Study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in 
     southeastern Alberta. Wildl Monogr 6, 88 pp.

Kirchner, T.B. 1977. Effects of resource enrichment on the diversity of plants 
     and anthropods in a shortgrass prairie. Ecology 58:1334-1344.

Kirk, W.G., and F.M. Hodges. 1970. Effect of controlled burning on production of 
     cows on native range. Proc, Florida Soil Crop Sci Soc 30:341-343.

Kirsch, L.M., and K.F. Higgins. 1976. Upland sandpiper nesting and management 
     in North Dakota. Wildl Soc Bull 4:16-22.

Kirsch, L.M., and A.D. Kruse. 1973. Prairie fires and wildlife. Proc, Tall Timbers 
     Fire Ecol Conf 12:289-303.

Kirsch, L.M., H.F. Duebbert, and A.D. Kruse. 1978. Grazing and haying effects 
     on habitats of upland nesting birds. Trans NA Wildl and Nat Resour Conf 
     43:486-497.

Klebenow, D.A. 1985. Big game response to fire in sagebrush-grass rangelands. 
     Pp 53-57 In K. Sanders and J. Durham (eds), Proc, Rangeland Fire Effects 
     Symposium, Boise, Idaho.

Klebenow, D.A., and R.C. Beall. 1978. Fire impacts on birds and mammals on Great 
     Basin Rangelands. Pp 59-62 In Proc, 1977 Rangeland Management and Fire 
     Symposium, Casper, WY.

Klebenow, D.A., and G.M. Gray. 1968. Food habits of juvenile sage grouse. J 
     Range Manage 21:80-83.

Klemmedson, J.O., and J.G. Smith. 1964. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L). Botanical 
     Review 30:226-262.

Klett, W.E., D. Hollingsworth, and J.L. Schuster. 1971. Increasing utilization of 
     weeping lovegrass by burning. J Range Manage 24:22-24.

Knapp, A.K. 1984. Effect of fire in tallgrass prairie on seed production of 
     Vernonia baldwinii Torr. (Compositae). Southwestern Nat 29:242-243.

Knutson, H., and J.B. Campbell. 1976. Relationships of grasshoppers (Acrididae) 
     to burning, grazing, and range sites of native tallgrass prairie in Kansas. 
     Proc, Tall Timbers Conf. on Ecological Animal Control by Habitat Management 
     6:107-120.

Komarek, E.V., Sr. 1969. Fire and animal behavior. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol 
     Conf 9:161-207.

Kramer, J.L.  1973. Vegetation and soil responses to burning, mowing, and 
     fertilization in the Sheyenne National Grassland of North Dakota. MS thesis, 
     NDSU, Fargo, 119 pp.

Kruse, A.D., and J.L. Piehl. 1986. Impact of prescribed burning on ground-nesting 
     birds. Proc, 9th NA Prairie Conf 9:153-156.

Kucera, C.L., and R.C. Dahlman. 1968. Root-rhizome relationships in fire-treated 
     stands of big bluestem, Andropogon gerardi Vitman. Am Midl Nat 80:268-
     271.

Lack, D. 1933. Habitat selection in birds with special reference to the 
     effects of afforestation of the Breckland avifauna. J Anim Ecol 2:239-262.

Launchbaugh, J.L. 1964. Effects of early spring burning on yields of native 
     vegetation. J Range Manage 17:5-6.

Launchbaugh, J.L. 1973. Effect of fire on shortgrass and mixed prairie species. 
     Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 12:129-151.

Launchbaugh, J.L., and C.E. Owensby. 1978. Kansas rangelands: their management 
     based on a half century of research. Kansas AES Bull 622, 56 pp.

Lawrence, G.E. 1966. Ecology of vertebrate animals in relation to chaparral 
     fire in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Ecology 47:278-291.

Leedy, D.L. 1950. Ducks continue to nest after brush fire at Castalia, Ohio. 
     Auk 67:234.

Leege. T.A., and W.O. Hickey. 1971. Sprouting of northern Idaho shrubs after 
     prescribed burning. J Wildl Manage 35:508-515.

Leigh, J.H. 1961. Relative palatability of various varieties of weeping 
     lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula (Schrad) Nees). J Brit Grassl Soc 16:135-
     140.

Leopold, A. 1941. Cheat takes over. Land 1:310-313.

Leopold, A., L.K. Sowls, and D.L. Spencer. 1947. Survey of over-populated deer 
     ranges in the United States. J Wildl Manage 11:162-177.

Linde, A.F. 1969. Techniques for wetland management. Wisconsin Dept Nat Resour 
     Rep 45, 156 pp.

Linde, A.F., T. Janisch, and D. Smith. 1976. Cattail: the significance of its 
     growth, phenology and carbohydrate storage to its control and management. 
     Wisconsin Dept Nat Resour Tech Bull 94, 27 pp.

Loovas, A.L. 1976. Introduction of prescribed burning to Wind Cave National 
     Park. Wildl Soc Bull 4:69-73.

Lotan, J., and J.K. Brown. 1985. Proc, Fire's effects on wildlife habitat 
     symposium, U.S. For Serv Gen Tech Rep INT-186, 96 pp.

Lowe, P.O., P.F. Ffolliot, J.H. Dieterick, and D.R. Patton. 1978. Determining 
     potential wildlife benefits from wildfire in Arizona ponderosa pine forests. 
     U.S. For Serv, Rocky Mtn For and Range Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep RM-52.

Lussenhop, J. 1976. Soil arthropod response to prairie burning. Ecology 57:88-98.

Martin, S.C. 1983. Responses of semidesert grasses and shrubs to fall burning.  
     J Range Manage 36:604-610.

Martinka, C.J. 1976. Fire and elk in Glacier National Park. Proc, Tall Timbers 
     Fire Ecol Conf 14:377-389.

Mathews, E.E. 1984. Fire on Montana's rangelands: a successful pilot program. 
     Western Wildlands 10:16-19.

Mayland, H.F. 1967. Nitrogen availability on fall-burned oak-mountain mahogany 
     chaparral. J Range Manage 20:33-35.

McGee, J.M. 1976. Some effects of fire suppression and prescribed burning on 
     birds and small mammals in sagebrush. PhD thesis, Univ of Wyoming, Laramie, 
     145 pp,

McGee, J.M. 1982. Small mammal populations in an unburned and early fire 
     successional sagebrush community. J Range Manage 35:177-180.

McGinty, A., F.E. Smeins, and L.B. Merrill. 1983. Influence of spring burning 
     on cattle diets and performance on the Edwards Plateau. J Range Manage 
     36:175-179.

McMurphy, W.E., and K.L. Anderson. 1965. Burning Flint Hills range. J Range 
     Manage 18:265-269.

Merrill, E.H., H.F. Mayland, and J.M. Peek. 1982. Shrub responses after fire 
     in an Idaho ponderosa pine community. J Wildl Manage 46:496-502.

Messinger, R.D. 1974. Effects of controlled burning on waterfowl nesting habitat 
     in northwest Iowa. MS thesis, Iowa State Univ, Ames, 49 pp.

Metz, L.J., T. Lotti, and R.A. Klawitter. 1961. Some effects of prescribed 
     burning on Coastal Plain forest soils. U.S. For Serv, Southeastern For 
     Exp Stn, Res Pap SE-133, 10 PP.

Millar, J.B. 1969. Observations on the ecology of wetland vegetation. Pages 
     49-56 In Saskatoon Wetland Seminar, Can Wildl Serv Rep Ser 6.

Millar, J.B. 1973. Vegetation changes in shallow marsh wetlands under improving 
     moisture regime. Can J Bot 51:1443-1457.

Miller, H.A. 1963. Use of fire in wildlife management. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol 
     Conf 2:19-30.

Monsen, S.B., and J.N. Davis. 1985. Progress in the improvement of selected western 
     North American rosaceous shrubs. Abstracts, 38th ann mtg, Soc for Range 
     Manage, Feb 11-15, 1985. Salt Lake City, UT, p 52.

Mook, J.H., and J. van der Toorn. 1982. Influence of environmental factors and 
     management on stands of Phragmites australis, II. Effects on yield and 
     its relationship with shoot density. J Applied Ecol 19:501-517.

Motobu, D.A. 1978. Effects of controlled slash burning on the mountain 
     beaver (Aplodontia rufa rufa). Northwest Sci 52:92-99.

Moyle, J.B. (ed). 1964. Ducks and land use in Minnesota. Minn Dep Conserv 
     Tech Bull 8, 140 PP.

Nagel, H.G. 1973. Effect of spring prairie burning on herbivorous and 
     non-herbivorous arthropod populations. J Kans Entomol Soc 46:485-496.

Neckles, H.A., J.W. Nelson, and R.L. Pederson. 1985. Management of whitetop 
     (Scolochloa festucacea) marshes for livestock forage and wildlife. Delta 
     Waterfowl Wetlands Res Stn Tech Bull 1, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, 12 pp.

Niemi, G.J. 1978. Breeding birds of burned and unburned areas in northern 
     Minnesota. Loon 50:73-83.

Nord, E.C., and C.L. Countryman. 1972. Fire relations. Pp 88-97 In C.M. McKell, 
     J.P. Blaisdell, and J.R Gordon (eds), Wildland shrubs, their biology and 
     utilization, U.S. For Ser, Intermt For and Range Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep INT- 1, 
     494 pp.

Nye, P.H. 1959. Some effects of natural vegetation on the soils of West Africa 
     and their development under cultivation. UNESCO Abidjan Symposium, Tropical 
     Soils and Vegetation, pp 59-63.

Ohr, K.M., and T.B. Bragg. 1985. Effects of fire on nutrient and energy concentration 
     of five prairie grass species. Prairie Nat 17:113-126.

Old, S.M. 1969. Microclimate, fire and plant production in an Illinois prairie. 
     Ecol Monogr 38:355-383.

Oswald, B.P., and W.W. Covington. 1983. Changes in understory production following 
     a wildlife in southwestern ponderosa pine. J Range Manage 36:507-509.

Owensby, C.E., and K.L. Anderson 1967. Yield responses to time of burning in the 
     Kansas Flint Hills. J Range Manage 20:12-17.

Owensby, C.E., and J.L. Launchbaugh. 1976. Controlling weeds and brush on 
     rangeland. Kansas CES Bull L-465.

Owensby, C.E., and J.B. Wyrill, III. 1973. Effects of range burning on Kansas 
     Flint Hills soil. J Range Manage 26:185-188.

Pauly, W.R. 1982. How to manage small prairie fires. Bull, Dane County 
     Environmental Council and Dane Co. Highway and Transportation Dept, Madison, 
     Wisc, 23 pp.

Pechanec, J.F., and A.C. Hull, Jr. 1945. Spring forage lost through cheatgrass 
     fires. Nat Wool Grower 35(4):13.

Peek, J.M., R.A. Riggs, and J.L. Lauer. 1979. Evaluation of fall burning on 
     bighorn sheep winter range. J Range Manage 32:430-432.

Peet, M., R. Anderson, and M.S. Adams. 1975. Effect of fire on big bluestem 
     production. Am Midl Nat 94:15-26.

Pelton, J. 1953. Studies on the life history of Symphoricarpos occidentalis in 
     Minnesota. Ecol Monogr 23:17-19.

Petersen, K.L., and L.B. Best. 1986. Diets of nestling sage sparrows and Brewer's 
     sparrows in an Idaho sagebrush community. J Field Ornith 57:283-294.

Pickford, G.D. 1932. Influence of continued heavy grazing and of promiscuous 
     burning on spring-fall ranges in Utah. Ecology 13:159-171.

Plummer, A.P., A.C. Hull, Jr., G. Stewart, and J.H. Robertson. 1955. Seeding 
     rangelands in Utah, Nevada, southern Idaho, and western Wyoming. U.S. For 
     Serv Agric Handb 71, 73 pp.

Pratt, D.C., and M.J. Andrews. 1981. Research in biomass/special energy crop 
     production in wetlands. Pp 71-81 In B. Richardson (ed), Selected proc, 
     Midwest Conf on Wetland Values and Management, Freshwater Soc, Navarro, Minn.

Quinn, R.D. 1979. Effects of fire on small mammals in chaparral. Calif-Nev Wildl 
     Trans, pp 125-133.

Rains, J.R., C.E. Owensby, and K.E. Kemp. 1975. Effects of nitrogen 
     fertilization, burning, and grazing on reserve constituents of big bluestem. 
     J Range Manage 28:358-362,

Raison, R.J. 1979. Modifications of the soil environment by vegetation fires, with 
     particular reference to nitrogen transformations: a review. Plant and Soil 
     51:73-108.

Redmann, R.E. 1978. Plant and soil water potentials following fire in a northern 
     mixed grassland. J Range Manage 31:443-445.

Renwald, J.D. 1977. Effect of fire on lark sparrow nesting densities. J Range 
     Manage 30:283-285.

Rice, L. 1932. Effect of fire on prairie animal communities. Ecology 13:392-401.

Rickard, W.H. 1960. Distribution of small mammals in relation to the climax 
     vegetation mosaic in eastern Washington and northern Idaho. Ecology 41:
     99-106.

Risser, P.G., E.C. Birney, H.D. Blocker, S.W. May, W.J. Parton, and J.A. Wiens. 
     1981. True prairie ecosystem. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co, Stroudsburg, Penn, 
     557 pp. 

Sadleir, R.M.F.S. 1965. Relationship between agonistic behavior and population 
     changes in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus (Wagner). J Animal 
     Ecol 34:331-352.

Schacht, W., and J. Stubbendieck. 1985. Prescribed burning in the Loess Hill 
     mixed prairie of southern Nebraska. J Range Manage 38:47-51.

Schlichtemeier, G. 1967. Marsh burning for waterfowl. Proc, Tall Timber Fire 
     Ecol Conf 6:40-46.

Schripsema, J.R. 1977. Ecological changes on pine-grassland burned in spring, 
     late spring, and winter. MS thesis, South Dakota State Univ, Brookings, 99 pp.

Scotter, G.W. 1963. Effects of forest fires on soil properties in northern 
     Saskatchewan. For Chron 39:412-421.

Seip, D.R., and F.L. Bunnell. 1985. Nutrition of Stone's sheep on burned and 
     unburned ranges. J Wildl Manage 49:397-405.

Sexton, D.A., and M.M. Gillespie. 1979. Effects of fire on the location of a 
     sharp-tailed grouse arena. Can Field-Nat 93:74-76.

Sharrow, S.H., and H.A. Wright. 1977a. Effects of fire, ash, litter on soil 
     nitrate, temperature, moisture and tobasagrass production in the Rolling 
     Plains. J Range Manage 30:266-270.

Sharrow, S.H., and H.A. Wright. 1977b. Proper burning intervals for tobasagrass 
     in west Texas based on nitrogen dynamics. J Range Manage 30:343-346.

Simon-Sylvestre, G. 1967. Initial results of a survey on the effects of steam 
     sterilization of soils. Ann Agron 18:243-266.

Sims, H.P., and C.H. Buckner. 1973. Effect of clear cutting and burning of 
     Pinus banksiana forest on the population of small mammals in southeastern 
     Manitoba. Am Midl Nat 90:228-231.

Smith, A.L. 1973. Production and nutrient status of whitetop. J Range Manage 
     26:117-120.

Smith, D.W. 1970. Concentrations of soil nutrients before and after fire. Can 
     J Soil Sci 50:17-29.

Smith, E.F., and C.E. Owensby. 1973. Effects of fire on true prairie grasslands. 
     Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 12:9-22.

Smith, E.F., and V.A. Young. 1959. Effect of burning on the chemical composition 
     of little bluestem. J Range Manage 12:139-140.

Smith, L.M., and J.A. Kadlec. 1984. Effects of prescribed burning on nutritive 
     quality of marsh plants in Utah. J Wildl Manage 48:285-288.

Smith, L.M., and J.A. Kadlec. 1985. Fire and herbivory in a Great Salt Lake 
     marsh. Ecology 66:259-265.

Soutiere, E.C, and E.G. Bolen. 1973. Role of fire in mourning dove nesting 
     ecology. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 12:277-288.

Spurr, S.H., and B.V. Barnes. 1980. Forest ecology, third ed. John Wiley & 
     Sons, New York, 687 pp.

Stark, N.M. 1979. Nutrient losses from timber harvesting in a larch/Douglas 
     fir forest. U.S. For Serv, Intermt For and Range Exp Stn Res Paper INT-231, 
     41 pp.

Stark, R.H., J.L. Toevs, and A.L. Hafenrichter. 1946. Grasses and cultural 
     methods of reseeding abandoned farm lands in southern Idaho. Idaho AES 
     Bull 267.

Stelfox, J.G., and H.G. Vriend. 1977. Prairie fires and pronghorn use of cactus.
     Can Field-Nat 91:282-285.

Stewart, R.E., and H.A. Kantrud. 1971. Classification of natural ponds and 
     lakes in the glaciated prairie region. USFWS Resour Publ. 92, 57 pp.

Stoddard, H.L., Sr. 1963. Bird habitat and fire. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol 
     Conf 2:163-175.

Stoddart, L.A., A.D. Smith, and T.W. Box. 1975. Range management, third ed. 
     McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York, N.Y. 532 PP.

Stout. J., A.L. Farris, and V.L. Wright. 1971. Small mammal populations of 
     an area in northern Idaho severely burned in 1967. Northwest Sci 45:219-226.

Svedarsky, W.D. 1979. Spring and summer ecology of female greater prairie 
     chickens in northwestern Minnesota. PhD dissertation, Univ of North 
     Dakota, Grand Forks, 166 pp. 

Svedarsky, W.D., P.E. Buckley, and T.A. Fiero. 1986. Effects of 13 years of 
     annual burning on an aspen-prairie ecotone in northwestern Minnesota. 
     Pp 118-122 In G.K. Clambey, W.C. Whitman, and R.H. Pemble (eds), Proc, 
     9th NA Prairie Conf, Moorhead, Minnesota.

Talent, L.G., G.L. Krapu, and R.L. Jarvis. 1982. Habitat use by mallard broods 
     in south central North Dakota. J Wildl Manage 46:629-635.

Tester, J.R. 1965. Effects of a controlled burn on small mammals in a 
     Minnesota oak-savanna. Am Midl Nat 74:240-243.

Tester, J.R., and W.H. Marshall. 1961. Study of certain plant and animal 
     interrelations on a native prairie in northwestern Minnesota. Univ of Minn 
     Mus Nat Hist Occas Pap 8, 51 pp.

Tester, J.R., and W.H. Marshall. 1962. Minnesota prairie management techniques 
     and their wildlife implications. Trans, NA Wildl Nat Res Conf 27:267-287.

Tevis. L. 1956. Effects of slash burning on forest mice. J Wildl Manage 
     29:405-409.

Thompson, D.J., and J.M. Shay. 1984. Effects of fire on Phragmites australis 
     in the Delta Marsh, Manitoba. Can J Bot 63:1864-1869.

Thompson, D.Q. 1959. Biological investigations of the Upper Fox River. Wisconsin 
     Conserv Dept Spec Wildl Rep 2, 41 pp.

Tiedmann, A.R., and T.D. Anderson. 1980. Combustion losses of sulfur from native 
     plant materials and forest litter. Pp 22-227 In Proc, 6th Conf on Fire 
     and Forest Meterology, April 22-24, 1980, Soc Amer For, Washington, D.C, 
     6:220-227.

Tomanek, G.W. 1948. Pasture types of western Kansas in relation to the intensity 
     of utilization in past years. Trans, Kans Acad Sci 51:171-196.

Towne, G., and C. Owensby. 1984. Long-term effects of annual burning at different 
     dates in ungrazed Kansas tallgrass prairie. J Range Manage 37:392-397.

Truax, W.C., and L.F. Gunther. 1951. Effectiveness of game management techniques 
     employed on Horizon Marsh. Trans, NA Wildl Conf 16:326-330.

Troester, H.G. 1970. Managed prairie burning for wildlife. North Dakota Outdoors 
     32:7-9.

Tryon, E.H. 1948. Effect of charcoal on certain physical, chemical, and biological 
     properties of forest soils. Ecol Monogr 18:81-115.

Uhler, F.M. 1944. Control of undesirable plants in waterfowl habitats. Trans, NA 
     Wildl Conf 9:295-303.

Vallentine, J.F. 1971. Range development and improvements, 2nd ed. Brigham Young 
     Univ Press, Provo, Utah, 545 pp.

van der Toorn, J., and J.H. Mook. 1982. Influence of environmental factors and 
     management on stands of Phragmites australis: I. Effects of burning, 
     frost and insect damage on shoot densities and shoot size. J Applied Ecol 
     19:477-499.

Vareschi, V. 1962. La quema como factor ecologico en los llanos. Soc Venez 
     Cienc Nat Bol 101:9-26.

Vlamis, J., and K.D. Gowans. 1961. Availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and 
     sulfur after brush burning. J Range Manage 14:38-40.

Vlamis, J., H.H. Biswell, and A.M. Schultz. 1955. Effects of prescribed burning 
     on soil fertility in second growth young ponderosa pine. J For 11:905-909.

Vogl, R.J. 1965. Effects of spring burning on yields of brush prairie savanna. 
     J Range Manage 18:202-205.

Vogl, R.J. 1967. Controlled burning for wildlife in Wisconsin. Proc, Tall Timbers 
     Fire Ecol Conf 6:47-96.

Vogl, R.J. 1973. Effects of fire on the plants and animals of a Florida wetland. Am 
     Midl Nat 89:334-347.

Vogl, R.J. 1974. Effects of fires on grasslands. Pp 139-194 In T.T. Kozolowski 
     and C.E. Ahlgren (eds), Fire and ecosystems, Academic Press, New York.

Vogl, R.J., and A.M. Beck. 1970. Response of white-tailed deer to a Wisconsin 
     wildfire. Am Midl Nat 84:270-273
     
Walker, T.W., and R. Thompson. 1949. Some observations on the chemical changes 
     effected by the steam sterilization of glasshouse soils. J Hort Sci 25:19-35.

Wallmo, O.C. 1981. Mule and black-tailed deer of North America. Univ of Nebraska 
     Press, Lincoln, 605 pp.

Ward, E. 1942. Phragmites management. Trans, NA Wildl Conf 7:294-298.

Ward, P. 1968. Fire in relation to waterfowl habitat of the Delta marshes. 
    Proc, Tall Timber Fire Ecol Conf 8:254-267.

Warg, S.A. 1938. Life history and economic studies on Bromus tectorum. Unpubl 
    MS thesis, Univ of Montana, Missoula, 38 PP.

Weaver, J.E., and N.W. Rowland. 1952. Effects of excessive natural mulch 
    on development, yield, and structure of native grassland. Bot Gaz 114:1-19.

Weller, M.W. 1981. Freshwater marshes: ecology and wildlife management. 
     Univ of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 146 pp.

Wells, C.G., R.E. Campbell, L.F. DeBano, C.E. Lewis, R.L. Fredickson, E.C. 
     Franklin, R.C. Froelich, and P.H. Dunn. 1979. Effects of fire on soils: 
     a state-of-knowledge review. U.S. For Serv Gen Tech Rep WO-7, 34 pp.

Wells, P.F. 1970. Postglacial vegetational history of the Great Plains. Science 
     167:1574-1582.

Westemeier, R.L. 1973. Prescribed burning in grassland managment for prairie 
     chickens in Illinois. Proc, Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 12:317-338.

White, A.S. 1983. Effects of thirteen years of annual prescribed burning on a 
     Quercus ellipsoidalis community in Minnesota. Ecology 64:1081-1085.

White, E.M., and F.R. Gartner. 1975. Immediate effects of prairie fire on the 
     soil nitrate, ammonium, available phosphorous and total N content. Proc, 
     SD Acad Sci 54:188-193.

White, E.M., W.W. Thompson, and F.R. Gartner. 1973. Heat effects on nutrient 
     release from soils under ponderosa pine. J Range Manage 26:22-24.

White, R.S., and P.O. Currie. 1983a. Prescribed burning in the northern Great 
     Plains: yield and cover responses of three forage species in the mixed grass 
     prairie. J Range Manage 36:179-183.

White, R.S., and P.O. Currie. 1983b. Effects of prescribed burning on silver 
     sagebrush. J Range Manage 36:611-613.

Williams, O. 1959. Food habits of the deer mouse. J Mamm 40:415-419.

Willms, W., A.W. Bailey, A. McLean, and R. Tucker. 1980. Effects of fall grazing 
     or burning bluebunch wheatgrass range on forage selection by deer and cattle 
     in spring. Can J Anim Sci 80:113-122.

Winter, B.M. 1984. Effects of prescribed burning on avian foraging ecology and 
     arthoropod abundance in sagebrush-grassland. MS thesis, Iowa State Univ, 
     Ames, 82 pp.

Winter, B.M. and L.B. Best. 1985. Effect of prescribed burning on placement 
     of sage sparrow nests. Condor 87:294-299.

Wolfe, C.W. 1973. Effects of fire on a sand hills grassland environment. Proc, 
     Tall Timbers Fire Ecol Conf 12:241-255.

Woolfolk, J.S., C.E. Owensby, L.H. Harbers, R.R. Schalles, L.J. Allen, and 
     E.F. Smith. 1973. Response of yearling steers to burning, fertilization, 
     and intensive early stocking of bluestem pasture. Kansas AES Bull 568: 
     10-11.

Woolfolk, J.S., E.F. Smith, R.B. Schalles, B.E. Brent, L.H. Harbers, and C.E. 
     Owensby. 1975. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and late-spring burning 
     of bluestem range on diet and performance of steers. J Range Manage 
     28:190-193.

Worcester, L.L. 1979. Effects of prescribed burning at different fuel moisture 
     levels on vegetation and soils of grasslands in Wind Cave National Park. 
     MS thesis, South Dakota State Univ, Brookings, 101 pp.

Wright, H.A. 1969. Effect of spring burning on tobasagrass. J Range Manage 2:425-427.

Wright, H.A. 1972. Shrub response to fire. In Wildland shrubs, their biology 
     and utilization. An Int Symp, Utah State Univ, Logan, U.S. For Serv, 
     Intermt For and Range Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep INT-1, 494 pp.

Wright, H.A. 1974. Range burning. J Range Manage 27:5-11.

Wright, H.A. 1980. Role and use of fire in the semidesert grass-shrub type. U.S. 
     For Serv, Intermt For and Range Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep INT-85, 24 pp.

Wright, H.A., and A.W. Bailey. 1980. Fire ecology and prescribed burning In the  
     Great Plains--a research review. U.S. For Serv Gen Tech Rep INT-77, 60 pp.

Wright, H.A., and A.W. Bailey. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern 
     Canada. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, 501 pp.

Wright, H.A., L.F. Neuenschwander, and C.M. Britton. 1979. Role and use of 
     fire in sagebrush-grass and pinyon-juniper plant communities. U.S. For Serv, 
     Intermt For and Range Exp Stn Gen Tech Rep INT-58, 48 PP.

Wydeven. A.P., and R.B. Dahlgren. 1983. Food habits of elk in the northern Great 
     Plains. J Wildl Manage 47:916-923.

Yancey, R.K. 1964. Matches and marshes. Pp 619-626 In J.P. Linduska (ed), 
     Waterfowl tomorrow, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Young, J.A., R.A. Evans, and R.A. Weaver. 1976. Estimating potential downy 
     brome competition after wildfires. J Range Manage 29:332-325.

Young, J.A., and R.A. Evans. 1974. Population dynamics of green rabbitbrush in 
     disturbed big sagebrush communities. J Range Manage 27:127-132.

Youngberg, C.T. 1953. Slash burning and soil organic matter maintenance. 
     J For 51:202-203.

Zelder. J., and O.L. Loucks. 1969. Differential burning response of Poa pratensis 
     fields and Andropogon scoparius prairies in central Wisconsin. Am Midl 
     Nat 81:341-352.

Zimmerman, G.M. 1981. Effects of fire upon selected plant communities in 
     the Little Missouri Badlands. MS thesis, North Dakota State Univ, 
     Fargo, 60 PP.

Previous Section -- Effects of Burning on Livestock
Return to Contents
Next Section -- Acknowledgements

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/habitat/fire/litcited.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Saturday, 02-Feb-2013 04:42:18 EST
Reston, VA [vaww54]