USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Managing Habitat for Grassland Birds
A Guide for Wisconsin

Natural Divisions: Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands


While crossing this marvellous region... thousands upon thousands of prairie chickens, partridges, and pheasants flew up before us continuously....

—Count Agoston Haraszthy writing
about a trip from Madison to Lake
Winnebago in 1840 (Schorger 1943)

Small Map: Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands

In presettlement times, this natural division was dominated by oak savannas (west, southeast, and north-central) and southern mesic forest, with a mosaic of prairies, extensive sedge meadows, southern dry forests, and some conifer swamps and lowland hardwood forests. Wetlands and lakes were abundant. Most prairies and sedge meadows were embedded in the savanna landscapes where most of the grassland bird habitat was located. The largest prairies were the Empire (or Arlington) Prairie in Columbia and Dane counties, the Rock Prairie in Rock and Walworth counties, and the Barnes Prairie in Racine and Kenosha counties.

Birds
The 16 priority bird species for the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands (see sidebar) include three of the four shortgrass species, all the midgrass species, two each of the tallgrass species and species requiring woody vegetation or nest structures, three of the species requiring large areas, and both species requiring open water from the statewide list (see Table 5). The three tallgrass species not included as priorities for this natural division—yellow rail and Le Conte's and Nelson's sharp-tailed sparrows—are sedge meadow birds that occur only rarely in the northern portion of the division. While not listed as a priority species, the greater prairie-chicken has the potential to be reintroduced in this division in appropriate landscapes, for example in the Muralt/Monroe Grasslands (H).

Shortgrass species.
Grasshopper sparrow is most common in the southern and western parts of this division, while upland sandpiper and vesper sparrow are more broadly distributed. Upland sandpiper is especially likely where there are large blocks of idle grassland and pasture. Vesper sparrow is most common and abundant in row crops and small grains in this division.

Midgrass species.
Dickcissel is typically most common in the southern part of this division. Bobolink, eastern meadow-lark, and savannah sparrow are all relatively widespread.

Tallgrass species.
Sedge wren is most abundant in the northern part. Henslow's sparrow is locally distributed throughout. This is one of the most important natural divisions for managing habitat for Henslow's sparrow. There are good opportunities for management of tallgrass species in this natural division.

Species requiring woody vegetation or nest structures.
Bell's vireo is most common in the southwestern part. The rare Loggerhead shrike has an unpredictable distribution in the division.

Species requiring open water.
Blue-winged teal and Wilson's phalarope occur most frequently in the northwestern part of this division in association with required wetland habitats.

Species requiring large areas.
Short-eared owl, barn owl, and northern harrier have unpredictable distributions but always depend on large areas of suitable habitat and, as elsewhere, on small mammal populations. These species are best managed for in the priority landscapes indicated in Figure 10.

Habitats, Landscapes, and Sites
Most of the state's row crops are grown in the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands, where agriculture is the most intensive. Small grains are common in the east-central part. Almost all prairies and many sedge meadows were converted to agriculture because of the division's relatively flat topography and rich soils. Most of the former forests are now farmland as well. An estimated 21,000 acres of permanent grassland is in blocks greater than 100 acres—the vast majority in uplands.

Because of the generally intensive agricultural and urban land uses, grassland bird habitat is largely restricted to idle grassland habitat on publicly owned properties and on unfarmed, privately owned grasslands such as wet meadows. However, some landscapes have considerable pasture or CRP acreage, such as parts of Green and Columbia counties. This natural division also contains the heart of the best historical duck and pheasant range in Wisconsin and thus lies a large number of State Wildlife Areas and other publicly owned lands that are managed in part for grassland nesting habitat. The potential for improving habitat quality for grassland birds on those properties is great.

Priority habitats, landscapes, and sites for grassland management in the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands are listed next to Figure 10. While this division has the greatest number of landscapes and sites, the only two landscapes to rank in the top ten are the Muralt/Monroe Grasslands (H)—a landscape dominated by private lands—and the White River Marsh Complex (I)—a landscape dominated by large public ownerships. Both of these landscapes have more extensive areas of idle grassland or sedge meadow habitat than the other landscapes in the division. The White River Marsh Complex has the most permanent, publicly owned grassland and sedge meadow in the division, although there is a substantial amount of woody vegetation scattered throughout the landscape as well. Management for grassland birds there will involve consolidation and expansion of open grassland habitat.

Photo by Michael Mossman: Scuppernong basin landscape (arial view)
Pictured here is the Scuppernong basin in the southern unit of the Kettle Moraine State Forest in Waukesha County. This landscape includes a variety of both surrogate and native grassland habitats In a largely fragmented landscape that includes wooded and agricultural habitats. Expanding, restoring, buffering, and connecting grasslands will improve habitat for grassland birds here. Grassland management needs to be coordinated with ulterior forest management, which is also a priority in this area.  

This natural division has diverse geography, hydrology, and grassland habitats. We believe that management opportunities are best in the eight priority landscapes, the one secondary landscape, and the other sites we have identified (Figure 10). Some of these landscapes include native grassland remnants, such as the Southern Kettle Moraine Complex (J), where the challenge is to expand and connect remnants to increase effective grassland habitat size. The Southern Kettle Moraine landscape will also require careful coordination of grassland, wetland, savanna, and southern interior forest conservation efforts, since all of these habitats are present.

Even in landscapes lacking concentrations of remnants, habitat size can be increased through expansion and connection of habitat patches, because many blocks of grassland habitat in the division are isolated from other suitable habitats. Some Wildlife Areas and other permanent grassland blocks in the division—such as some sites in the Glacial Habitat Restoration Area—were not selected as priority sites. However, many of these can still provide valuable habitat if priority habitats are managed following the general habitat management recommendations in this guidebook.

      Drawing by Jim McEvoy: Blue-winged teal
Blue-winged teal
Species of management concern in the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands
(in order of priority)

Henslow's sparrow
Loggerhead shrike
Dickcissel
Bobolink
Eastern meadowlard
Upland sandpiper
Sedge wren
Grasshopper sparrow
Vesper sparrow
Savannah sparrow
Blue-winged teal
Bell's vireo
Wilson's phalarope
Northern harrier
Short-eared owl
Barn owl


Figure 10: Map of the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands Natural Division showing locations of priority and secondary landscapes along with sites for management focus
Figure 10.  Priority landscapes and sites for grassland bird management in the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands Natural Division.

Landscape and Site Names1   Habitat Types (see below for 4-letter codes)

H.  Muralt/Monroe Grasslands   PAST, ICSG, IWSG, SMGR, DROF, UPSH, DMPR, OASA, DSPR, SSME, GLHA2
Sites: 36.  Oliver Prairie State Natural Area (SNA) DMPR
37.  Muralt Bluff Prairie SNA DSPR, DMPR
38.  Albany Wildlife Area (WA) ICSG, IWSG, UPSH
   
I.  White River Marsh Complex3 SSME, ICSG, IWSG, WMWP, SHSW, SSMA, DROF, WEOF, SWOF
Sites: 60.  Puchyan Prairie SNA ICSG, IWSG, OASA, SSME, WMWP, PAST, DROF, WEOF, SWOF, UPSH, OPBO
61.  White River Marsh WA OASA, WMWP
   
J.  Southern Kettle Moraine Complex ICSG, IWSG, OASA, SSME, WMWP, PAST, DROF, WEOF, SWOF, UPSH, OPBO
Sites: 30.  Genesee Oak Opening and Fen SNA OASA, WMWP
31.  Scuppernong River Basin Complex (includes Scuppernong Prairie State Natural Area, Kettle Moraine Fen and Low Prairie SNA, and Ottawa Lake Fen SNA) SSME, WMWP, OASA, ICSG, DMPR, DROF, SHSW, UPSH, WEOF, SWOF
32.  Eagle Oak Opening SNA OASA
33.  Blue Spring Oak Opening SNA/ Restoration Area OASA, DROF
34.  Young Prairie SNA WMWP, IWSG, OASA, DROF, SWOF
35.  Clover Valley Fen SNA WMWP, SSME, ICSG, WEOF
   
K.  Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands ICSG, IWSG, DROF, WEOF, PAST, SSME, SSMA, SMGR, DMPR, DSPR, UPSH, SHSW, OASA, FAFI
Sites: 45.  Northern Dane County Prairie Pastures PAST, DMPR, ICSG
46.  Audubon Goose Pond SNA IWSG, ICSG, DROF
47.  Schoeneberg Marsh Waterfowl Protection Areas (WPAs) ICSG, IWSG, SSMA, DROF, SHSW
48.  Mud Lake WA ICSG, IWSG, UPSH, DROF, SSMA, DMPR
49.  Otsego WPAs (includes Severson, Vangen, Manthey, and other nearby WPAs) ICSG, IWSG, SHSW, SSMA
50.  Grassy Lake WA IWSG, ICSG, SSMA, DROF, UPSH, SHSW
   
L.  Bong Recreation Area  
Sites: 28.  Bong State Recreation Area (SRA) ICSG, IWSG, DROF, SWOF, OASA, UPSH, WMWP, WEOF
   
M.  Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows SSME, SHSW, GLHA, ICSG, PAST, WEOF, WMWP, OASA
Sites: 62.  Gromme Preserve (several sites) SSME, WEOF, ICSG, IWSG, OASA, WMWP, SHSW, SWOF, SSMA
63.  Uihlein WPA ICSG, IWSG, SSMA
   
N.  Brillion/Killsnake Grasslands ICSG, SMGR, PAST
Sites: 65.  Killsnake WA ICSG, IWSG, SSME, UPSH, OASA, SHSW, SWOF
66.  Brillion WA ICSG, IWSG, SSME, UPSH, OASA, WEOF, SHSW, SWOF
   
O.  Pine Island Area Grasslands ORBA, OASA, SSME, IWSG
Sites: 53.  Pine Island WA IWSG, DROF, ICSG, UPSH, DSPR, SWOF, WMWP, SSME
   
DD.  Waterloo Area Prairies PAST, SWOF, ICSG, OASA, WMWP, DROF, WEOF, SHSW, SSME
Sites: 39.  Faville Prairie SNA WMWP, SHSW, SSME, ICSG
40.  Snapper Prairie SNA WMWP, WEOF
41.  Waterloo WA (includes Blue Joint Fen and Waterloo Fen & Springs SNA) IWSG, ICSG, WMWP, SSME, SHSW, UPSH, OASA
   
EE.  Horicon Marsh Grasslands  

56.  Horicon NWR/Horicon WA IWSG, ICSG, DROF, WEOF, SWOF, UPSH, SHSW, SSME
   
FF.  Saint Peter's Prairie DMPR, DSPR, ICSG
   
        Other Sites Located Outside of Landscapes:
27.  Chiwaukee Prairie SNA   WMWP, SSME, DMPR, ICSG, WEOF, OASA
29.  Lulu Lake SNA SSME, WMWP, OASA, DSPR, SHSW, DROF, OPBO
42.  Deansville WA (Includes Deansville Fen SNA) ICSG, WEOF, SWOF, WMWP, IWSG
43.  Cherokee Marsh (includes Cherokee Marsh SNA) SSME, SHSW, WEOF, SWOF, WMWP, DROF, IWSG, ICSG
44.  Bong Road/Westport Drumlin SNA DMPR, UPSH, ICSG, DROF, DSPR
51.  Rocky Run State Fisheries Area (SFA) (includes Rocky Run Oak Savanna SNA) OASA, DROF, ICSG, IWSG, UPSH
52.  Badger Army Ammunition Plant IWSG, PAST, ICSG, DROF, OASA
54.  French Creek WA SSME, IWSG, ICSG, WMWP, DROF, OASA, SSMA
55.  Jersey Flats Prairie Restoration IWSG
57.  Patrouille/Buwalda Easement (in Glacial Habitat Restoration Area) IWSG, FAFI, ICSG, WEOF, WMWP
58.  Grand River Marsh WA (includes Fountain Creek Wet Prairie SNA) ICSG, IWSG, SSME, WMWP, OASA, DROF, SHSW, WEOF, SWOF
59.  Fox River Crane Marsh SSME, SSMA, SHSW
64.  Poygan Marsh WA SSMA, SHSW, ICSG

1 Landscapes are ranked from highest priority to lowest priority. Sites are not ranked within landscapes. When a landscape overlaps more than one natural division, the landscape is listed within the division where most of its land area occurs. Four-letter codes represent priority habitat types that are present in the sites and landscapes.
2 Codes listed after landscape names refer to habitats common or present within the landscape, in areas other than the numbered sites.
3 The White River Marsh Complex Landscape has sites in both the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands Division and the Central Plains Division.

Priority Grassland Habitats for Management in the Southeastern Ridges and Lowlands 1
(ranked by priority)

IWSG Idle warm season grass/forb (medium and tall):
(L) Bong SRA, (61) White River Marsh WA, (H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (53) Pine Island WA, (65) Killsnake WA, (66) Brillion WA, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (O) Pine Island Area Grasslands, (48) Mud Lake WA, (50) Grassy Lake WA, (47) Schoeneberg Marsh WPAs, (49) Otsego WPAs, (54) French Creek WA, (38) Albany WA, (55) Jersey Flats Prairie Restoration, (41) Waterloo WA, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (46) Audubon Goose Pond SNA, (57) Patrouille/Bulwada Easement, (52) Badger Army Ammunition Plant, (34) Young Prairie SNA, (42) Deansville WA, (51) Rocky Run SFA. (62) Gromme Preserve, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (63) Uihlein WPA
 
SSME Southern sedge meadow:
(61) White River Marsh WA, (59) Fox River Crane Marsh, (60) Puchyan Prairie SNA, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (41) Waterloo WA, (35) Clover Valley Fen SNA, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (62) Gromme Preserve, (29) Lulu Lake SNA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (54) French Creek WA, (66) Brillion WA, (65) Killsnake WA, (O) Pine Island Area Grasslands, (27) Chiwaukee Prairie SNA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (53) Pine Island WA, (39) Faville Prairie SNA, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA
 
ICSG Idle cool season grass/forb (short, medium, and tall):
(H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (61) White River Marsh WA, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (L) Bong SRA, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (48) Mud Lake WA, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (65) Killsnake WA, (66) Brillion WA, (N) Brillion/Killsnake Grasslands, (38) Albany WA, (54) French Creek WA, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (53) Pine Island WA, (47) Schoeneberg Marsh WPAs, (41) Waterloo WA, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (50) Grassy Lake WA, (49) Otsego WPAs, (35) Clover Valley Fen SNA, (62) Gromme Preserve, (45) Northern Dane County Prairie Pastures, (46) Audubon Goose Pond SNA, (27) Chiwaukee Prairie SNA, (51) Rocky Run SFA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (42) Deansville WA, (39) Faville Prairie SNA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (57) Patrouille/Bulwada Easement, (63) Uihlein WPA, (64) Poygan Marsh WA, (52) Badger Army Ammunition Plant, (44) Bong Road/Westport Drumlin SNA, (FF) Saint Peter's Prairie
 
PAST Pasture:
(H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (45) Northern Dane County Prairie Pastures, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (N) Brillion/Killsnake Grasslands, (52) Badger Army Ammunition Plant, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies
 
UPSH Upland shrub:
(H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (48) Mud Lake WA, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (53) Pine Island WA, (50) Grassy Lake WA, (38) Albany WA, (L) Bong SRA, (66) Brillion WA, (65) Killsnake WA, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (44) Bong Road/Westport Drumlin SNA, (41) Waterloo WA, (51) Rocky Run SFA
 
WMWP Wet-mesic or wet prairie:
(31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (34) Young Prairie SNA, (61) White River Marsh WA, (60) Puchyan Prairie SNA, (41) Waterloo WA, (27) Chiwaukee Prairie SNA, (41) Waterloo WA (Blue Joint Fen), (58) Grand River Marsh WA (mainly Fountain Creek SNA), (39) Faville Prairie SNA, (40) Snapper Prairie SNA, (35) Clover Valley Fen SNA, (42) Deansville WA, (54) French Creek WA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (29) Lulu Lake SNA, (30) Genesee Oak Opening and Fen SNA, (62) Gromme Preserve, (L) Bong SRA, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (53) Pine Island WA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (57) Patrouille/Bulwada Easement
 
DSPR Dry or sand prairie:
(37) Muralt Bluff Prairie SNA, (H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (53) Pine Island WA, (FF) Saint Peter's Prairie (small remnants surrounded by cropland), (29) Lulu Lake SNA, (44) Bong Road/Westport Drumlin SNA
 
OASA Oak savanna:
(33) Blue Spring Oak Opening SNA/Restoration Area, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (30) Genesee Oak Opening and Fen SNA, (51) Rocky Run SFA, (H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (29) Lulu Lake SNA, (34) Young Prairie SNA, (32) Eagle Oak Opening SNA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (L) Bong SRA, (52) Badger Army Ammunition Plant, (62) Gromme Preserve, (65) Killsnake WA, (66) Brillion WA, (0) Pine Island Area Grasslands, (27) Chiwaukee Prairie SNA, (54) French Creek WA, (41) Waterloo WA
 
DROF Dry old field:
(H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (33) Blue Spring Oak Opening SNA/Restoration Area, (61) White River Marsh WA, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (53) Pine Island WA, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (51) Rocky Run SFA, (L) Bong SRA, (34) Young Prairie SNA, (48) Mud Lake WA, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (46) Audubon Goose Pond SNA, (50) Grassy Lake WA, (47) Schoeneberg Marsh WPAs, (41) Waterloo WA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (44) Bong Road/Westport Drumlin SNA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (52) Badger Army Ammunition Plant, (29) Lulu Lake SNA, (54) French Creek WA
 
GLHA Grass or grass/legume hay:
(M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands
 
WEOF Wet old field:
(61) White River Marsh WA, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (35) Clover Valley Fen SNA, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (66) Brillion WA, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (40) Snapper Prairie SNA, (41) Waterloo WA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (27) Chiwaukee Prairie SNA, (57) Patrouille/Bulwada Easement, (42) Deansville WA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (62) Gromme Preserve, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (28) Bong SRA
 
SSMA Southern sedge marsh:
(59) Fox River Crane Marsh, (64) Poygan Marsh WA, (61) White River Marsh WA, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (47) Schoeneberg Marsh WPAs, (48) Mud Lake WA, (50) Grassy Lake WA, (49) Otsego WPAs, (62) Gromme Preserve, (54) French Creek WA, (63) Uihlein WPA
 
ORBA Oak or river barrens:
(I) White River Marsh Complex, (O) Pine Island Area Grasslands
 
SMGR Small grains:
(H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (N) Brillion/Killsnake Grasslands
 
DMPR Dry-mesic prairie:
(37) Muralt Bluff Prairie SNA, (H) Muralt/Monroe Grasslands, (45) Northern Dane County Prairie Pastures, (44) Bong Road/Westport Drumlin SNA, (36) Oliver Prairie SNA, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (27) Chiwaukee Prairie SNA, (48) Mud Lake WA, (FF) Saint Peter's Prairie (small remnants surrounded by cropland)
 
SHSW Shrub swamp:
(31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (61) White River Marsh WA, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands, (M) Rush Lake Grasslands and Sedge Meadows, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (47) Schoeneberg Marsh WPAs, (39) Faville Prairie SNA, (49) Otsego WPAs, (66) Brillion WA, (65) Killsnake WA, (62) Gromme Preserve, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (58) Grand River Marsh WA, (64) Poygan Marsh WA, (29) Lulu Lake SNA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (41) Waterloo WA, (59) Fox River Crane Marsh, (50) Grassy Lake WA
 
SWOF Shrubby wet old field:
(61) White River Marsh WA, (I) White River Marsh Complex, (31) Scuppernong River Basin Complex, (34) Young Prairie SNA, (J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (L) Bong SRA, (62) Gromme Preserve, (66) Brillion WA, (53) Pine Island WA, (56) Horicon NWR/Horicon WA, (DD) Waterloo Area Prairies, (42) Deansville WA, (43) Cherokee Marsh, (65) Killsnake WA, (58) Grand River Marsh WA
 
OPBO Open Bog:
(J) Southern Kettle Moraine Complex, (29) Lulu Lake SNA
 
FAFI Fallow fields:
(57) Patrouille/Bulwada Easement, (K) Columbia/Dane County Prairie Wetlands
 
YCPL Young conifer plantation:
(I) White River Marsh Complex


1 Habitats are ranked by priority within the division. Each habitat is followed by suggested landscapes and sites for management, arranged roughly from highest to lowest priority. Landscape letter codes and site number codes in parentheses correspond to the map. See Table 1 and Appendix E for descriptions of bird communities expected in the habitats listed.
Previous Section -- Natural Divisions: Southwestern Upland
Return to Contents
Next Section -- Natural Divisions: Central Plains

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo USA.gov logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/wiscbird/stheast.htm
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 20:07:23 EST
Reston, VA [vaww55]