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A Comprehensive Review of Observational and Site Evaluation Data of Migrant Whooping Cranes in the United States, 1943-99

Appendices


I. EXCEL DATABASES

Observation Database (OBSERVATION.XLS)

Variable name Definition
ORIG OBS Main observation code, original
OBS Main observation code, corrected
YEAR Calendar year
DATE FROM First date crane(s) observed
DADOED Last date crane(s) observed
GNATS Total number of days crane(s) observed at that general location
NO_ADULTS Number of adults
NO_JUV Number of juveniles
TOTAL Total number of cranes
SITE_EVAL Y = site evaluation conducted; n = no site evaluation
STATE State
COUNTY County (specific to Observation record)
LEGAL_DESC Legal description of location (township, range, section, quarter section, quarter of quarter section)
AREA_NAME Description of location
LAT Latitude, original data [not used in this summary]
LONG Longitude, original data [not used in this summary]
OBS_TYPE Report (incidental report), Radio (from radio-telemetry studies), Mortality (from cranes found dead)
SEASON Spring, Fall, Winter, Summer
CONFIDENCE All "Confirmed"
SITE If crane(s) observed in air, on land, or on water, or some combination
INIT_TIME Time at which crane(s) first observed
COLOR_BAND Listing of color-marked codes observed [note: no proofing or corrections have been made to this variable]
FWS_BANDNO Numeric code of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service band [note: no proofing or corrections have been made to this variable]
SPP Other species occurring with crane(s)

Site Evaluation Database (EVALUATON.XLS)

Variable name Definitions & Categories
ORIG_OBS Main and sub-observation code, original
OBS Main and sub-observation code, corrected
MAIN_OBS Main observation code only
SUB_OBS Sub-observation code
YEAR Calendar year
STATE State
COUNTY County (specific to Site Evaluation location)
LEGAL_DESC Legal description of site evaluation location (township, range, section, quarter-section, quarter-of-quarter section)
SITE_USE Primary use of site:
    Feed: Crane(s) primarily feeding on site
    Roost: Crane(s) roosting on site
    Both: Crane(s) observed both feeding and roosting on site
    Unknown: use of site unknown
WET_CLASS Original wetland classification, mixed systems and formats
SUBSYSTM Wetland subsystem, following Cowardin et al. (1979)
REGIME Water regime, following Cowardin et al. (1970)
DEPTH Original water depth code, including both CDEPTH and RDEPTH, and full range (e.g., C1-15)
CDEPTH Water depth (inches) at specific site within wetland where crane(s) observed
RDEPTH Water depth (inches)
QUALITY Water quality:
    1 = Clear
    2 = Turbid
    3 = Saline
SUBSTRAT Wetland substrate characteristic:
    1 = Sand
    2 = Soft mud
    3 = Hard mud
    4 = Other
SLOPE Slope of wetland shoreline:
    1 = < 1°
    2 = 1 - < 5°
    3 = 5 - 10°
    4 = > 10°
    5 = NA (not applicable)
    6 = Other
EMERG Dominant emergent vegetation
    1 = Grass
    2 = Sedge
    3 = Cattail
    4 = Rush
    5 = Smartweed
    6 = Other
    7 = None
DENSITY Distribution of emergent vegetation
    1 = None
    2 = Scattered
    3 = Clumped
    4 = Choked
ROOST Roost site descriptors - habitat types:
      9 = Flooded pasture
    10 = Wooded creek or draw
    11 = Flooded cropland
    12 = Stockpond
    13 = Reservoir
    14 = Lake
    15 = Marsh
    16 = River
    17 = Salt (saline) marsh
    18 = Tailwater pit
    19 = Seasonally flooded basin
    20 = Cropland
    21 = Pasture
    22 = Wet meadow
    23 = Hay meadow
    24 = Woodland
    25 = Other

Roost site description - crop types:
    A = Alfalfa
    B = Barley
    C = Corn (standing?)
    D = Conservation Reserve Program
    E = Rice
    F = Sunflower (standing?)
    G = Spring wheat (standing?)
    L = Fallow
    M = Milo (standing?)
    N = Disked alfalfa
    O = Oat stubble
    P = Popcorn
    R = Green rye
    S = Soybean (standing?)
    T = Bean stubble
    U = Sunflower (stubble?)
    V = Barley stubble
    W = Winter wheat (green?)
    X = Wheat stubble
    Y = Milo stubble
    Z = Corn stubble
FEED Feeding site descriptors - same codes as used in ROOST
ADJ_HAB Primary descriptors of habitats within 1.6 km (1 mi) radius of site
SIZE_WET Original size description for all wetland sites - classes for palustrine and lacustrine wetlands, exact widths for rivers
WSIZE_CL Size class of palustrine and lacustrine wetlands, derived from SIZE_WET, recorded in acres
    1 = < 0.4 ha [1 ac]
    2 = 0.40 - < 2 [1- <5 ac]
    3 = 2 - < 4 ha [5 - <10 ac]
    4 = 4 - < 20 ha [10 - <50 ac]
    5 = 20 - < 40 ha [50 - <100 ac]
    6 = > 40 ha [>100 ac]
RWIDTH Width of riverine wetlands, derived from SIZE_WET, recorded in yards
DIST_FEED Distance to feeding site (miles)
    1 = < 0.40 km [<0.25 mil]
    2 = 0.40 - 0.79 km [0.25 - <0.50 mi]
    3 = 0.8 - 1.19 km [0.50 - <0.75 mi]
    4 = 1.2 - 1.6 km [0.75 - <1.0 mi]
    5 = > 1.0 mi [>1.6 km]
    6 = NA (not applicable)
DIST_DEV Distance to human development (e.g., structure, road, railroad, bridge), recorded in yards; same distance categories as DIST_FEED
POT_FOOD Primary potential food source on site
    1 = Grain (seed and plant material)
    2 = Tubers
    3 = Insects and other invertebrates
    4 = Molluscs
    5 = Crustacean
    6 = Fish
    7 = Frogs
    8 = Other
    9 = Salamanders
OBS_FOOD Foods observed eaten by crane(s); same categories as POT_FOOD
SITE_SEC Security of site: stability and security of the habitat and any nearby activities that could threaten the site or the cranes
    1 = Stable
    2 = Threatened
    3 = Unknown
SIM_HAB Extent of similar habitat within 16-km (10-mi) radius of site
    1 = None
    2 = Little
    3 = Moderate or common
    4 = Abundant
    5 = Unknown
SITE_OWNER Site ownership
    1 = Private
    2 = Federal
    3 = State
    4 = Other
NO_BIRDS Total number of cranes observed on site evaluation site
OBS_DATE Date site evaluation was conducted
FIRSTDATE First date crane(s) were observed at site
LASTDATE Last date crane(s) were observed at site
INIT Time of day of initial crane sighting
DEP Time of day of departure
INIT_TIME Initial time of sighting for site by observer
DEP_TIME Time of departure from that site by observer
COLOR_BAND Description of color markers observed at site during site evaluation
VISIBILITY Shortest straight-line distance to the nearest obstruction >1.4 m in height
    1 = unlimited
    2 = < 91 m (<100 yd)
    3 = 91 - 401 m (100 - <440 yd)
    4 = 402 - 805 m (880 yd)
    5 = > 805 m (880 yd)
    6 = NA (not applicable)
DIST_LINE Distance to nearest utility (power or phone)lines
    1 = < 91 m (<100 yd)
    2 = 91 - 401 m (100 - <440 yd)
    3 = 402 - 805 m (880 yd)
    4 = > 805 m (>880 yd) [or NA for some earlier records]
SOURCE Source of record; to distinguish among incidental and study-related observations
    1 = Johnson
    2 = USFWS [all incidental observation]
    3 = Radio-tracking (Howe 1987)
PHOTO Photograph take at site (Yes / No)


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