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Factors Associated with Autumn Rearing of Duck Broods in Temperate North America

Tables


Table 1.  Statewide frequencies of occurrence (with 95% confidence interval) and statewide breeding population estimates (1000s of pairs, with 95% confidence intervals) of uncommon species of birds (i.e., species with frequencies less than 10%) in North Dakota in 1967, 1992 and 1993.
Species Frequency of occurrence(CI) Population Estimate (CI)
1967 1992 1993 1967 1992 1993
Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 24 (4-44) 9 (0-17) 15 (0-29)
Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 4 (0-9) 2 (0-6) 0
Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-6) 2 (0-5)
Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 90 (0-188)   108(0-294) 49 (0-119)
Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 4 (0-10) 2 (0-6)
American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) 0 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 4 (0-12)
Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0 2 (0-6) 22 (0-50)
American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 19 (6-32) 4 (0-12) 17 (3-31)
Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 4 (0-9) 2 (0-6) 7 (0-13)
Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 37 (0-70) 11 (0-22) 11 (0-21)
Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 4 (0-9) 0 2 (0-6)
Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 0 24 (0-63) 62 (0-133)
Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 2 (0-6) 4 (0-10) 25 (0-47)
Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-6) 0
Canvasback (Aythya valisineria) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 22 (0-57) 9 (1-17) 10 (0-24)
Redhead (Aythya americana) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 7.0 (3.2-11.9) 59 (0-115) 42 (0-85) 91 (0-174)
Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 4 (0-11) 0 2 (0-6)
Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 6 (0-13) 9 (0-24) 9 (0-24)
Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) 0 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-6)
Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) 0 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0 4 (0-9)
Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 80 (0-160) 126 (0-342) 50 (0-93)
Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiter striatus) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-5) 0
Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 6 (0-13) 4 (0-9) 17 (6-29)
Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-6) 2 (0-5)
Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 9 (1-17) 9 (1-17) 18 (6-29)
Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0 4 (0-8) 7 (0-13)
American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) 0 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 11 (2-20) 21 (5-37) 24 (7-41)
Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) 0 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0 6 (0-12) 6 (0-12)
Wild Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) 0 0 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0 0 7 (0-13)
Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-6) 0
Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 7 (0-13) 11 (0-23) 4 (0-9)
Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 11 (0-27) 4 (0-12) 2 (0-6)
American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 31 (3-59) 13 (0-26) 29 (0-57)
Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) 7.8 (3.9-12.6) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 26 (9-42) 26 (5-47) 19 (3-36)
Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 0 4 (0-10) 15 (4-26)
Franklin's Gull (Larus pipixcan) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 48 (8-88) 171 (0-360) 125 (0-325)
Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 2 (0-6) 106 (0-211) 24 (2-46)
California Gull (Larus californicus) 0 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0 4 (0-10)
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 13 (0-36) 13 (0-33) 7 (0-15)
Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 6 (0-15) 13 (0-33) 9 (0-21)
Rock Dove (Columba livia) 0 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 0 50 (0-113) 26 (5-48)
Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 7.0 (3.2-11.9) 4 (0-9) 9 (1-16) 19 (7-31)
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 7 (0-15) 7 (0-13) 5 (0-10)
Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-5) 2 (0-6)
Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-6) 2 (0-6)
Chimney Swift (Chaetura pelagica) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 2 (0-6) 0 6 (0-13)
Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) 0 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 0 0 9 (1-16) 0
Belted Kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-6) 2 (0-6)
Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 4 (0-9) 20 (4-35) 15 (0-28)
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) 0 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0 4 (0-9)
Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 7.0 (3.2-11.9) 7.8 (3.9-12.6) 4 (0-9) 26 (9-43) 23 (9-38)
Red-shafted Flicker (Colaptes auratus cafer) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 25 (5-44) 10 (2-19) 9 (1-17)
Pileated Woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) 0 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-6)
Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 4 (0-9) 21 (0-40) 14 (0-29)
Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) 0 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-6)
Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 4 (0-11) 4 (0-9) 6 (0-11)
Great Crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 6 (0-16) 17 (0-34) 26 (3-50)
Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons) 0 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 4 (0-11)
Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 27 (0-52) 42 (0-81) 86 (16-157)
Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 7.0 (3.2-11.9) 40 (6-75) 32 (7-57) 33 (10-56)
Purple Martin (Progne subis) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 4 (0-9) 2 (0-6) 0
Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 6 (0-13) 11 (2-19) 26 (8-44)
Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 15 (0-32) 2 (0-6) 7 (0-16)
White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 6 (0-16) 15 (2-28) 19 (4-34)
Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 20 (2-37) 46 (12-80) 58 (14-101)
Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 22 (0-49) 43 (5-81) 80 (0-187)
Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) 0 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 0 8 (1-16) 11 (0-20)
Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 16 (1-30) 30 (5-54) 43 (7-79)
Veery (Catharus fuscescens) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 22 (0-57) 11 (0-22) 6 (0-16)
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) 9.4 (4.9-14.8) 8.6 (4.2-14.1) 9.4 (4.9-14.8) 26 (12-40) 102 (0-202) 89 (0-164)
Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 15 (2-28) 29 (5-52) 42 (8-75)
Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) 0 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0 4 (0-9)
Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 6 (0-13) 14 (0-27) 45 (0-86)
American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) 5.5 (2.1-10.0) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 26 (0-51) 21 (4-39) 41 (0-76)
Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 12 (0-25) 40 (0-77) 61 (0-131)
Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0 4 (0-9) 0 0
Mourning Warbler (Oporornis philadelphia) 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-6) 2 (0-6)
Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 12 (0-26) 12 (1-23) 24 (4-43)
Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 4 (0-11) 2 (0-5) 6 (0-14)
Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) 7.0 (3.2-11.9) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 99 (41-156) 130 (29-231) 159 (47-270)
Le Conte's Sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 4.7 (1.6-9.0) 12 (2-22) 4 (0-12) 29 (0-58)
Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 7.0 (3.2-11.9) 7 (0-13) 7 (0-13) 27 (9-46)
McCown's Longspur (Calcarius mccownii) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 50 (0-99) 4 (0-12) 2 (0-6)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 4 (0-9) 6 (0-12) 10 (1-20)
Black-headed Grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 11 (0-26) 11 (1-21) 7 (0-13)
Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca caerulea) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 2 (0-6) 2 (0-6) 0
Lazuli Bunting (Passerina amoena) 3.1 (0.8-6.5) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 3.9 (1.1-8.1) 17 (0-33) 24 (0-52) 36 (0-70)
Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 4 (0-9) 4 (0-9) 6 (0-14)
Dickcissel (Spiza americana) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 6.3 (2.7-10.8) 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 139 (26-252) 74 (7-140) 31 (0-75)
Spotted Towhee (Pipilo maculatus) 9.4 (4.9-14.8) 9.4 (4.9-14.8) 8.6 (4.2-14.1) 189 (64-314) 167 (58-275) 253 (84-423)
Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna) 0 0 0.8 (0.0-4.1) 0 0 2 (0-6)
Bullock's Oriole (Icterus bullockii) 0 0 1.6 (0.1-4.6) 0 0 4 (0-9)
Pine Siskin(Carduelis pinus) 0 0 2.3 (0.4-5.5) 0 0 30 (0-75)

 

Table 2.  Composition of breeding birds in North Dakota, by migration strategy and habitat, in 1967, 1992 and 1993.
  Number of uncommon species Number of common species
Migration Strategy
Long-distance migrant 32 30
Short-distance migrant1 53 33
Permanent resident 7 6
Breeding habitat
Grassland 7 17
Open habitat/scattered trees 3 5
Wetland 34 17
Shrubland 7 7
Woodland 13 1
Open woodland/edge1 20 17
Residential/human structures 4 4
Other2 4 1
Total 92 69
1 Northern Flicker counted only once in this category.
2 Mostly unvegetated habitats including clay buttes, cliffs, banks, etc.