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Birds as Indicators of Riparian Vegetation Condition in the Western U.S.

Riparian Dependent Species


These are species that place 60%-90% of their nests in riparian vegetation or for which 60%-90% of their abundance occurs in riparian vegetation during the breeding season. Riparian dependents might still occur in an area if riparian vegetation were seriously degraded but their populations would be greatly reduced and they might not persist in the long-term. Some species may be classified as dependents in one geographic area but not another.

Dependent Species2
Conservation Action Required in Geographic Region3
Vegetation Layer(s) Used4
Coastal
Northern Rockies
Great Basin
Arid S. West
Co. Plat./S. Rockies
Prairies
Understory
Midstory
Canopy
American Goldfinch
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bank Swallow
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bewick's Wren
 
 
 
 
 
Black-billed Cuckoo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Black-capped Chickadee
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Black-chinned Hummingbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Black-headed Grosbeak
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blue Grosbeak
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blue-throated Hummingbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bronzed Cowbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bullock's Oriole
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Calliope Hummingbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cooper's Hawk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cordilleran Flycatcher
 
 
 
 
 
 
Eastern Kingbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Elf Owl
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ferruginous Pygmy-owl
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fox Sparrow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gray Catbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Harris' Hawk
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hooded Oriole
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
House Wren
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Indigo Bunting
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lazuli Bunting
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lesser Goldfinch
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lewis' Woodpecker
 
 
 
 
 
 
MacGillivray's Warbler
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mississippi Kite
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Northern Goshawk
 
 
 
 
 
 
Painted Redstart
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Phainopepla
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Red-eyed Vireo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Red-faced Warbler
 
 
 
 
 
 
Red-headed Woodpecker
 
 
 
 
Red-naped Sapsucker
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Swainson's Hawk
 
 
 
 
 
 
Swainson's Thrush
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tree Swallow
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Warbling Vireo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Western Wood-pewee
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
White-eared Hummingbird
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zone-tailed Hawk
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2Species is considered to be Dependent (see definitions) in at least one geographic region (see map).
3The Western Working Group of Partners in Flight determined that conservation action is needed now for the species in the geographic region(s) indicated.
4The vegetation layer(s) used most by the species. The species is most useful as an indicator of the ecological condition of the layer(s) used.
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