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Mallard Recruitment in the Agricultural Environment of North Dakota

Literature Cited


Anderson, D. R. 1975. Population ecology of the mallard. V. Temporal
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Batt, B. D. J. 1979. Individual variation and the analysis of mallard populations. Pages 95-102 in T. A. Bookhout, ed. Waterfowl and wetlands--an integrated review. Proc. 1977 Symp. Midwest Fish and Wildl. Conf., Madison, Wis. North Cent. Sect., The Wildl. Soc.

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Gilmer, D. S., I. J. Ball, L. M. Cowardin, J. H. Riechmann, and J. R. Tester. 1975. Habitat use and home range of mallards breeding in Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 39:781-789.

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Gilmer, D. S., R. E. Kirby, I. J. Ball, and J. H. Riechmann. 1977. Post-breeding activities of mallards and wood ducks in north-central Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 41:345-359.

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Hochbaum, G. S., and F. D. Caswell. 1978. A forecast of long-term trends in breeding mallard populations on the Canadian prairies. Can. Wildl. Serv. Prog. Notes 90. 8pp.

Johnson, D. H. 1979. Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an alternative. Auk 96:651-661.

Johnson, D. H. 1980. The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preference. Ecology 61:65-71.

Johnson, D. H., and A. B. Sargeant. 1977. Impact of red fox predation on the sex ratio of prairie mallards. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Wildl. Res. Rep. 6. 56pp.

Keith, L. B. 1961. A study of waterfowl ecology on small impoundments in southeastern Alberta. Wildl. Monogr. 6. 88pp.

Kirsch, L. M., H. F. Duebbert, and A. D. Kruse. 1978. Grazing and haying effects on habitats of upland nesting birds. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 43:486-497.

Klett, A. T., and D. H. Johnson. 1982. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies. Auk 99:77-87.

Krapu, G. L. 1974. Avian mortality from collisions with overhead wires in North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 6:1-6.

Krapu, G. L. 1981. The role of nutrient reserves in mallard reproduction. Auk 98:29-38.

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Livezey, B. C. 1981a. Duck nesting in retired croplands at Horicon National Wildlife Refuge, Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:27-37.

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Mayfield, H. 1961. Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bull. 73:255-261.

Mayfield, H. 1975. Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bull. 87:456-466.

Mechlin, L. M., and C. W. Shaiffer. 1980. Net-firing gun for capturing breeding waterfowl. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:895-896.

Miller, H. W., and D. H. Johnson. 1978. lnterpreting the results of nesting studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:471-476.

Mosteller, F., and J. W. Tukey. 1977. Data analysis and regression, 2nd ed. Addison-Wesley Publ. Co., Reading, Mass. 588pp.

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Patterson, J. H. 1979. [Can ducks be managed by regulation?] Experiences in Canada. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 44:130-139.

Pospahala, R. S., D. R. Anderson, and C. J. Henny. 1974. Population ecology of the mallard. II. Breeding habitat conditions, size of breeding populations, and production indices. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 115. 73pp.

Raveling, D. G. 1979. The annual cycle of body composition of Canada geese with special reference to control of reproduction. Auk 96:234-252.

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Ringelman, J. K., and J. R. Longcore. 1980. Computer simulation models as tools for identifying research needs: a black duck population model. Trans. Northeast Fish and Wildl. Conf. 37:182-193.

Robel, R. J., J. N. Briggs, A. D. Dayton, and L. C. Hulbert. 1970. Relationships between visual obstruction measurements and weight of grassland vegetation. J. Range Manage. 23:295-297.

Sargeant, A. B. 1981. Road casualties of prairie nesting ducks. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 9:65-69.

Sargeant, A. B., S. H. Allen, and R. T. Eberhardt. 1984. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America. Wildl. Monogr. 89. 41pp.

Sargeant, A. B., G. A. Swanson, and H. A. Doty. 1973. Selective predation by mink, Mustela vison, on waterfowl. Am. Midl. Nat. 89:208-214.

SAS Institute, Inc. 1982. SAS user s guide: statistics. Cary, N.C. 584pp.

Seago, J. B., M. R. Wright, C. H. Weeser, and S. E. Smith. 1970. Soil survey of Wells County, North Dakota. U.S. Dep. Agric. Soil Conserv. Serv. in coop. with N.D. Agric. Exp. Stn., U.S. Gov. Printing Off., Washington, D.C. 84pp.

Smith, A. G. 1971. Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the Alberta parklands. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 98. 49pp.

Sowls, L. K. 1955. Prairie ducks: a study of their behavior, ecology and management. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, Pa. 193pp.

Stewart, R. E. 1975. Breeding birds of North Dakota. Tri-College Center for Environmental Studies, Fargo, N.D. 295pp.

Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1971. Classification of natural ponds and lakes in the glaciated prairie region. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 92. 57pp.

Stoudt, J. H. 1971. Ecological factors affecting waterfowl production in the Saskatchewan parklands. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 99. 58pp.

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