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Mallard Recruitment in the Agricultural Environment of North Dakota


This study could not have been accomplished without the field and office assistance of technicians, K. Devening, J. F. Gulke, B. A. Hanson, M. A. Hay, J. H. Heggeness, S. T. Knick, W. Norling, D. L. Orthmeyer, J. L. Piehl, D. L. Pieske, R. R. Reynolds, R. Rosenfield, W. J. Schaller, J. L. Sease, S. M. Sturtz, and L. W. Vanderhoeff. In addition, technicians R. L. Duval and L. M. Mechlin made major contributions in design and execution of the study. Telemetry equipment was obtained from and maintained by the Cedar Creek Bioelectronics Laboratory of the University of Minnesota. Data processing and development of computer programs were accomplished by D. A. Davenport, A. M. Frank, and C. L. Nustad. A. M. Frank and D. H. Johnson furnished statistical consultation in design of the study and analysis of data. We made use of the simulation model developed as a research tool by these statisticians working with biologists L. M. Cowardin, R. D. Crawford, T. J. Dwyer, D. S. Gilmer, R. J. Greenwood, G. L. Krapu, A. B. Sargeant, and G. A. Swanson. Many other staff members of the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center under the direction of W. R. Goforth and later under R. C. Stendell contributed to the ideas presented here. W. R. Goforth, R. J. Greenwood, K. F. Higgins, R. L. Jessen, D. H. Johnson, A. T. Klett, H. W. Miller R. J. Pospahala, A. B. Sargeant, J. R. Serie and R. C. Stendell read drafts of the manuscript. D. W. Sparling furnished a critical review. M. G. Anderson and L. H. Fredrickson kindly served as consulting editors.
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