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Distribution and Abundance of Predators that Affect
Duck Production: Prairie Pothole Region

Tables


Table 5. Number and relative abundance of avian predators species affecting duck production by study area and province or state in the prairie pothole region.a,b

Aread Relative Abundancec
Year(s) Number present species Number
> or = to common speciese
Black- billed magpie (2) American crow
(2)
Northern harrier (1,3) Swainson's hawk
(1,3)
Red- tailed hawk (1,3) Ferrug-
inous
hawk
(3)
Great horned owl
(1,3)
Canada
Alberta
Gayford1985632323303
Hay Lakes*1983-84663333403
Holden*198365343d≥3f0≥3f
Penhold*1984-858g34322312
 Average6.54.3       
Manitoba
Cartwright1983623322202
Moore Park*1983-84642333403
 Average6.03.0       
Saskatchewan
Ceylon1983-84622244012
Craik1984-85722322213
Denzil1984-85722322212
Earl Grey*1985722322312
Goodwater1983642344013
Hanley*1983-85723422212
Inchkeith*1984-85643322302
Leask*1984-857g32333301
Shamrock1983-85732333212
Yorkton*19857g32322303
 Average6.72.7       
United States
Minnesota
Hawley*1987-88420220304
Hitterdal*1988521220303
Lake Park*1987-885g00220202
 Average4.71.3       
Montana
Morgan1983400h2ddudu
Plentywood1983402h2dduuu
 Average4.00.0       
North Dakota
Courtenay1988520123203
Eldrige1987-88610222213
Fredonia1987-88640143133
Jud1987-88620223213
Kulm1988620222233
Litchville1987-88520123203
Plaza19836-02ddddd
Sharon19835-02dddud
Streeter19835-02ddudd
 Average5.62.2h       
South Dakota
Hosmer19837-12ddddd
Madison19835-02dddud
Parkston19835-02dddud
 Average5.7-       
Total areas
detected (%)
   5810010091854894
Total areas > or = to common (%)   184532h46h44h8h56h


aIncludes only predators known or thought to be resident in one or more study areas, 1983-88.
bNumerical abundance ratings are 4 = numerous, 3 = common, 2 = uncommon, 1 = scarce, and 0 = undetected; alphabetical designators (d = detected, u = undetected) are used for species in study areas for which data were insufficient to rate relative abundance.
cSpecies denoted with a (1) prey extensively on adult ducks, species denoted with a (2) prey extensively on duck eggs, and species denoted with a 93) are known or thought to prey extensively on ducklings.
dStudy areas denoted with an asterisk (*) are in the aspen parkland; all other study areas are in the prairie.
eMinimal because the mink (some study areas) and weasels were not rated.
fIncludes ermine and long-tailed weasel.
gIncludes the gray wolf, which was found only in the Moore Park study area and rated scarce.
hBased only on data from study areas where abundances of predators were rated.

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