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Distribution and Abundance of Predators that Affect
Duck Production: Prairie Pothole Region

Appendix


Table 7. Comparisons of percentage of study areas in the prairie and in the aspen parkland habitat zones of the prairie pothole region having abundance of individual predator species rated common or more abundant, 1983-88. Weasels and large gulls were excluded because data were insufficient to rate abundance.

Species Study Areas in Prairiea Study Areas in Aspen Parkland
(N) No. > or = common % > or = common (N) No. > or = common % > or = common X2b,c P
Carnivores
Coyote 21 15 72 12 9 75 0.05 0.825
Gray Wolf 21 0 0 12 0 0 0.07 0.787
Red Fox 21 20 95 12 8 67 4.85 0.028
Raccoon 21 17 81 12 6 50 3.46 0.063
Striped Skunk 21 20 95 12 12 100 0.59 0.443
Badger 21 14 67 12 2 17 7.64 0.006
Mink 13 2 15 12 3 25 0.36 0.548
Rodents
Franklin's Ground Squirrel 21 0 0 12 3 25 5.78 0.016
Corvids
Black-billed Magpie 21 1 5 12 5 42 6.99 0.008
American Crow 21 6 29 12 9 75 6.64 0.010
Raven 21 0 0 12 0 0 0.07 0.787
Raptors
Northern Harrier 13 4 31 12 4 33 0.02 0.891
Swainson's Hawk 13 9 69 11d 2 18 6.25 0.012
Red-tailed Hawk 13 1 8 12 10 83 14.49 <0.001
Ferruginous Hawk 13 2 15 12 0 0 2.01 0.157
Great Horned Owl 13 8 62 12 6 50 0.34 0.561

aExcludes minks and raptors in eight Central Flyway study areas because data were insufficient to determine whether abundance was common or greater.
bChi-square value with 1df.
cWe added 0.5 to all cells to accommodate zero counts.
dExcludes the Holden study area because data were insufficient to determine whether species was common or more abundant.


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