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Distribution and Abundance of Predators that Affect
Duck Production: Prairie Pothole Region

Appendix


Table 6. Comparisons of the percentage of study areas in the prairie pothole region of Canada and the United States with studied predator species rated common or more abundant, 1983-88. Weasels and large gulls were excluded because data were insufficient to rate the abundance of these species.

Species Study Areas in Canada Study Areas in United Statesa
(N) No. > or = common % > or = common (N) No. > or = common % > or = common X2b,c P
Carnivores
Coyote 16 16 100 17 8 47 11.65 0.001
Gray Wolf 16 0 0 17 0 0 0.01 0.977
Red Fox 16 11 69 17 17 100 6.26 0.012
Raccoon 16 7 44 17 16 94 9.90 0.002
Striped Skunk 16 15 94 17 17 100 1.10 0.295
Badger 16 6 37 17 10 59 1.50 0.221
Mink 16 0 0 9 5 56 11.11 0.001
Rodents
Franklin's Ground Squirrel 16 3 19 17 0 0 3.51 0.061
Corvids
Black-billed Magpie 16 6 37 17 0 0 7.79 0.005
American Crow 16 15 94 17 0 0 29.22 <0.001
Raven 16 0 0 17 0 0 0.01 0.977
Raptors
Northern Harrier 16 7 44 9 1 11 2.82 0.093
Swainson's Hawk 15d 7 47 9 4 44 0.01 0.916
Red-tailed Hawk 16 8 50 9 2 22 1.85 0.174
Ferruginous Hawk 16 0 0 9 2 22 3.87 0.049
Great Horned Owl 16 6 38 9 8 89 6.17 0.013

aExcludes minks and raptors in eight Central Flyway study areas because data were insufficient to determine whether abundance was common or greater.
bChi-square value with 1 df.
cWe added 0.5 to all cells to accommodate zero counts.
dExcludes the Holden study area because data were insufficient to determine whether species was common or more abundant.


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