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Distribution and Abundance of Predators that Affect
Duck Production: Prairie Pothole Region


This study was conducted as part of three larger investigations involving the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Office of Migratory Bird Management, National Wetlands Inventory, Refuges and Wildlife in Minnesota and North Dakota, and Animal Damage Control in North Dakota and Montana; the Canadian Wildlife Service Prairie and Northern Wildlife Center; Alberta Department of Forestry, Lands, and Wildlife; Manitoba Department of Natural Resources; Saskatchewan Tourism and Renewable Resources; the Central Flyway Waterfowl Technical Committee and supporting states; the Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, and Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units; the Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit; the North Dakota Game and Fish Department; the University of Missouri; the University of North Dakota; the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks; and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. We thank the many individuals in these agencies and institutions who provided the necessary permits, field personnel, liaison, logistical support, and financial support that made the study possible. Individuals within these agencies to whom we are especially indebted for facilitating our work include S. Anderson, R. Andrews, I. Ball, T. Baskett, R. Brace, G. Bogdan, D. Fellows, E. Fritzell, M. Gillespie, R. Goulden, G. Grau, T. Hinz, M. A. Johnson, B. Joslyn, E. Klass, T. Kuck, J. Laughlin, R. Linder, H. Miller, R. Nelson, W. Pfeifer, R. Pospahala, J. Romelfanger, R. Sayler, C. Scheelhaase, R. Severson, R. Stendell, and D. Van Asperen.

We are indebted to J. Belant, L. Cowardin, R. Gebhard, P. Prigge, H. Pywell, T. Sklebar, C. Storrs, and B. Wilen for detailed maps of study areas and for computations of habitat compositions of each area. We thank R. Severson and O. Corr for providing field training in carnivore track identification; D. Johnson for assistance in designing predator surveys, developing data recording formats, and data analysis; C. Nustad and D. Rova for assistance with data processing. We are grateful to D. Rova and D. Twedt for graphics preparation; R. Thielman for photographic assistance; A. Zimmerman for library assistance; and T. Hanson for typing manuscript drafts.

Collection of field data involved many individuals whose assistance is greatly appreciated. For field assistance with the Stabilized Regulations Study we thank C. Abbott, T. Arnold, W. Arnsberg, R. Bennetts, C. Bitler, T. Bollinger, D. Brandt, J. Callow, O. Corr, G. Costanzo, J. Devries, N. Dietz, B. Dirks, L. Erickson-Eastwood, K. Eskowich, B. Estell, D. Fellows, J. Fleskes, M. Garrett, D. Gawlik, W. Green, N. Gruenhagen, N. Hall, J. Henne, J. Holm, M. Hurley, M.J. Johnson, D. Kane, D. Kenmer, V. Kimmel, A. Klett, G. Lapointe, J. Lokemoen, J. Lord, J. Massopust, R. Mellott, C. Mitchell, R. Naze, S. Olmstead, D. Orthmeyer, C. Osmundson, G. Pendleton, L.G. Peterson, T. Peterson, S. Rule, J. Schweiger, R. Severson, D. Sharp, J. Shoemaker, G. Simonson, M. Spoden, C. Sweeney, M. Sword, P. Taminoto, P. Tebble, J. Telleen, J. Theade, R. Tweten, C. Van Fossen, P. Wilson, R. Woodward, and G. Zenitskty.

For field assistance with the Central Flyway study we thank L. Anderson, I. Ball, D. Beck, R. Bennett, H. Browers, O. Corr, J. Harber, A. Hetrick, M. A. Johnson, E. Keyser, M. Kintigh, R. Libra, R. Lundquist, C. Olawsky, D. Orthmeyer, W. Scott, K. Shea, J. Shoemaker, S. Sovey, L Tangen, D. Timpe, S. Thompson, and B. Wangler.

For field assistance in the small unit management study we thank M. Albrecht, P. Arnold, J. Belant, P. Berthelsen, M. Boyer, R. Brown, R. Brust, J. Cable, D. Callow, R. Cordray, J. Cowardin, N. Dietz, B. DeSantos, B. Dirks, D. DeWitt, C. Dwyer, D. Ecklund, J. Edwards, G. Falk, P. Fasbender, D. Fellows, G. Fisher, E. Forgaard, R. Gaines, E. Gilbert, C. Goddard, M. Goddard, C. Grosskreutz, K. Grosz, H. Guse, S. Hall, A. Hancock, B. Hanson, J. Hamlin, K. Harris, S. Hart, T. Hawkes, J. Hegeness, D. Henry, D. Hertel, D. Janes, D. Johnson, M.J. Johnson, P. Johnson, B. Kietzman, D. Licht, J. Lokemoen, T. Loose, C. Luna, S. Manley, G. McDaniel, K. McDowell, W. Mulvaney, W. Norling, M. Olson, W. Olson, L.G. Peterson, L.N. Peterson, J. Payne, P. Pietz, S. Pitschka, C. Prosser, G. Riscahl, R. Risdahl, B. Rogers, S. Ross, J. Russell, R. Sanders, B. Schultz, W. Seybold, K. Sittauer, E. Smith, P. Smith, E. Sparks, M. Spoden, D. Stagg, L. Stevenson, M. Veloske, M. Vrtiska, and R. Woods.

We are indebted to the numerous unnamed individuals in Canada and the United States who participated in a variety of other important ways by providing facilities, equipment, and liaison that were essential for successful conduct of this study. We are also indebted to S. Allen, I. Ball, W. Berg, R. Clark, K. DeSmet, R. Jones, C. Johnson, D. Johnson, M. A. Johnson, R. Koford, J. Lokemoen, K. Lungle, R. Murphy, W. Newton, E. Rockwell, T. Sankowski, and three anonymous referees for reviewing drafts of this manuscript and offering many useful comments.

Finally, we thank the many landowners in the three provinces and four states who kindly allowed us to work on their lands and who extended their friendship during the course of our evaluations.

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