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Population Energetics of Northern Pintails
Wintering in the Sacramento Valley, California

Appendix A


Appendix A.  Mean ambient temperatures, body mass, and changes in body mass, fat, and protein content of adult male and female northern pintails during a dry (1980-81) and a wet (1981-82) winter in the Sacramento Valley, California.
Periodc Sex Dry winter (1980-1981) Wet winter (1981-1982)
n Temp (°C) Body mass (g)a Tissue gain or loss/day (g)a n Temp (°C) Body mass (g)a Tissue gain or loss/day (g)
Fatb Proteinb Fatb Proteinb
Mean of X SE Mean of X SE Mean of X SE Mean of X SE Mean of X SE Mean of X SE
Aug-Sep M 21 22 951 20 15 18 -5 8 26 23 957 15 45 21 -6 3
F 14 22 840 25 36 22 12 7 10 23 821 17 6 27 -13 6
Sep-Oct M 23 19 1,028 20 81 23 14 6 18 19 1,026 19 66 23 15 4
F 17 19 893 18 46 22 2 6 13 19 829 17 28 15 11 5
Oct-Nov M 23 15 1,074 16 56 22 -1 5 14 17 1,052 20 -1 2 4 6
F 17 15 935 18 85 22 1 4 11 17 904 28 127 27 11 6
Nov-Dec M 19 10 1,053 14 -35 21 -3 6 13 13 998 25 -41 24 -4 7
F 19 10 924 17 -45 16 -13 3 10 13 940 22 -54 35 -3 6
Dec-Jan M 18 8 981 17 -90 23 -4 6 16 8 980 17 13 24 6 7
F 21 8 865 20 -49 21 2 4 10 8 910 17 -1 32 -2 5
Jan-Feb M 18 9 992 21 124 22 -1 5 18 8 1,037 18 77 21 -1 4
F 23 9 887 21 54 23 0 4 13 8 908 15 15 21 -2 4
Feb-Mar M 17 11 1,030 17 -30 25 -2 4 14 11 1,098 16 23 21 -2 3
F 18 11 907 18 -44 24 -2 4 14 11 919 13 15 13 2 4
a Means determined from monthly means in Miller (1986b).
b Fat and protein changes do not equal gains or losses in body mass, because of variations in mass of plumage, ingesta, carcass water, ash, and rounding errors.
c Assumes 30 days between monthly midpoints (e.g., Aug-Sep = 15 Aug to 15 Sep).

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