USGS - science for a changing world

Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

  Home About NPWRC Our Science Staff Employment Contacts Common Questions About the Site

Nesting Ecology and Nesting Habitat Requirements of Ohio's Grassland-nesting Birds: A Literature Review

Literature Cited

Ailes, I. W. 1980. Breeding biology and habitat use of the upland sandpiper in central  
     Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 42:53-63.

Ailes, I. W., and J. E. Toepfer. 1977. Home range and daily movement of radio-tagged 
     upland sandpipers in central Wisconsin. Inland Bird Band. News 49:203-212.

Aldrich, J. W. 1948. The breeding distribution of the dickcissel. Audubon Field Notes 

Alsop, F. J., III. 1979. Population status and management considerations for Tennessee's 
     threatened and endangered bird species. Unpubl. Rep., East Tennessee Univ., 
     Kingsport. 200pp.

Anderson, S. A., M. McKinstry, and K. Shelley. 1994. Reclaiming minelands to benefit 
     wildlife. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 59:303-308.

Applegate, R. D., and A. G. Willms. 1987. Distribution and population trend of western 
     meadowlarks in Illinois. Prairie Nat. 19:145-148.

Askins, R. A. 1993. Population trends in grassland, shrubland, and forest birds in 
     eastern North America. Pages 1-34 in D. M. Power, ed. Current ornithology, Vol. 
     11. Plenum Press, New York.

Baker, D. L., and F. S. Guthery. 1990. Effects of continuous grazing on habitat and 
     density of ground-foraging birds in South Texas. J. Range Manage. 43:2-5.

Bartmann, R. M. 1969. Pheasant nesting on soil bank land in northern Utah. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 33:1020-1023.

Baskett, T. S. 1947. Nesting and production of the ring-necked pheasant in north-central 
     Iowa. Ecol. Monogr. 17:1-30.

Baskett, T. S., D. A. Darrow, D. L. Hallett, M. J. Armbruster, J. A. Ellis, B. F. Sparrowe, 
     and P. A. Korte. 1980. A handbook for terrestrial habitat evaluation in central 
     Missouri. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 133. 155pp.

Basore, N. S., L. B. Best, and J. B. Wooley, Jr. 1986. Bird nesting in Iowa no-tillage and 
     tilled cropland. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:19-28.

Beck, H. H. 1956. Status of the upland plover in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Auk 

Bedard, J., and G. LaPointe. 1984. The savannah sparrow territorial system: can habitat 
     features be related to breeding success? Can. J. Zool. 62:1819-1828.

Bent, A. C. 1929. Life histories of North American shore birds. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 146. 

Bent, A. C. 1958. Life histories of North American blackbirds, orioles, tanagers, and 
     allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bu11. 211. 490pp.

Bent, A. C. 1968. Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, buntings, 
     towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 237. 1020pp.

Berger, A. J. 1968. Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (Gmelin): Eastern vesper sparrow. Pages 
     863-882 in 0. L. Austin, ed. Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks,
     buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 237. 1020pp.

Berthelsen, P. S., L. M. Smith, and C. L. Coffman. 1989. CRP land and game bird production 
     in the Texas high plains. J. Soil Water Conserv. 44:504-507.

Berthelsen, P. S., L. M. Smith, and R. R. George. 1990. Ring-necked pheasant nesting 
     ecology and production on CRP lands on the Texas southern high plains. Trans. North 
     Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 55:46-56.

Best, L. B. 1972. First-year effects of sagebrush control on two sparrows. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 36:534-544.

Best, L. B. 1983. Bird use of fencerows: implications of contemporary fencerow management 
     practices. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 11:343-347

Best, L. B. 1986. Conservation tillage: ecological traps for nesting birds? Wildl. Soc. 
     Bull. 14:308-317.

Best, L. B., and N. L. Rodenhouse. 1984. Territory preference of vesper sparrows in 
     cropland. Wilson Bull. 96:72-82.

Blankespoor, G. W. 1980. Prairie restoration: effects on nongame birds. J. Wildl. Manage.

Blankespoor, G. W., and H. Krause. 1982. The breeding birds of Minnehaha County, South Dakota: 
     then (1907-1916) and now (1971-1975). Am. Birds 36:22-27.

Bock, C. E., and J. H. Bock. 1987. Avian habitat occupancy following fire in a Montana 
     shrubsteppe. Prairie Nat. 19:153-158.

Bock, C. E., and B. Webb. 1984. Birds as grazing indicator species in southeastern Arizona. 
     J. Wildl. Manage.48:1045-1059.

Bollinger, E. K., P. B. Bollinger, and T. A. Gavin. 1990. Effects of hay-cropping on 
     eastern populations of the bobolink. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:142-150.

Bollinger, E. K., and T. A. Gavin. 1989. The effects of site quality on breeding site 
     fidelity in bobolinks. Auk 106:584-594.

Bollinger, E. K., and T. A. Gavin. 1992. Eastern bobolink populations: ecology and 
     conservation in an agricultural landscape. Pages 497-506 in J. M. Hagan, III and D. W. 
     Johnston, eds. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian 
     Inst. Press, Washington, D.C.

Bollinger, E. K., T. A. Gavin, and D. C. McIntyre. 1988. Comparison of transects
     and circular plots for estimating bobolink densities. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:777-786.

Bowen, B. S., and A. D. Kruse. 1993. Effects of grazing on nesting by upland sandpipers 
     in southcentral North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 57:291-301.

Bowen, D. E., Jr. 1976. Coloniality, reproductive success, and habitat interactions in 
     upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda). Ph.D. Thesis, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

Bowles, M. L., K. Kerr, R. H. Thom, and D. E. Birkenholz. 1981. Threatened, endangered, 
     and extirpated birds of Illinois prairies. Oh. Biol. Surv., Biol. Notes No. 14:257-260.

Braband, L. 1984. Railroad grasslands as bird and mammal habitats in central Iowa. Proc. 
     North Am. Prairie Conf. 9:86-90.

Bragg, T. B. 1982. Seasonal variations in fuel and fuel consumption by fires in a bluestem 
     prairie. Ecology 63:7-11.

Brooks, E. W. 1988. A third post-1875 nesting of dickcissels in New York State. Kingbird

Brooks, W. S. 1971. Songbird communities-comparison of sedge-forb meadow and willow 
     shrub areas. Passenger Pigeon 33:39-45.

Brown, D. A. 1988. Nesting dickcissels in Chattooga County, Georgia. Oriole 53:34-35.

Bryan, G. G., and L. B. Best. 1991. Bird abundance and species richness in grassed waterways 
     in Iowa rowcrop fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 126:90-102.

Bryan, G. G., and L. B. Best. 1994. Avian nest density and success in grassed waterways 
     in Iowa rowcrop fields. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 22:583-592.

Buhnerkempe, J. E., and R L. Westemeier. 1988. Breeding biology and habitat of upland 
     sandpipers on prairie chicken sanctuaries in Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci.

Burger, G. V. 1966. Observations on aggressive behavior of male ring-necked pheasants in 
     Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 30:57-64.

Burger, L. D., L. W. Burger, and J. Faaborg. 1994. Effects of prairie fragmentation on 
     predation on artificial nests. J. Wildl. Manage. 58:249-254.

Burley, J. B. 1989. Multi-model habitat suitability index analysis in the Red River Valley. 
     Landscape Urban Plann. 17:261-280.

Buss, I. O., and A. S. Hawkins. 1939. The upland plover at Faville Grove, Wisconsin. Wilson 
     Bull. 51:202-220.

Camp, M., and L. B. Best. 1994. Nest density and nesting success of birds in roadsides 
     adjacent to rowcrop fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 131:347-358.

Carroll, J. P., and R. D. Sayler. 1990. Nest habitat and success of ring-necked pheasants 
     on Mallard Island, North Dakota. Pages 315-331 in K. E. Church, R. E. Warner, and 
     S. J. Brayd, eds. Perdix V: gray partridge and ring-necked pheasant workshop. Kans. 
     Dep. Wildl. and Parks, Emporia.

Carter, J. W. 1992. Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda. Pages 235-252 in K. J. 
     Schneider and D. M. Pence, eds. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in 
     the northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Newton Corner, Mass. 400pp.

Castrale, J. S. 1983. Selection of song perches by sagebrush-grassland birds. Wilson Bull. 

Castrale, J. S. 1985. Responses of wildlife to various tillage conditions. Trans. North Am. 
     Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 50:142-156.

Clawson, R. L. 1991. Henslow's sparrow habitat, site fidelity, and reproduction in Missouri. 
     Fed. Aid Perf. Rep., Mo. Dep. Conserv., Proj. W-14-R-45. 18pp.

Cody, M. L. 1968. On the methods of resource division in grassland bird communities. Am. 
     Nat. 102:107-147.

Crowell, D. K., C. C. Carpenter, and D. G. Huffman. 1982. Nest sharing by a lark sparrow. 
     Auk 99:591-592.

Dahlgren, R. B. 1988. Distribution and abundance of the ring-necked pheasant in North 
     America. Pages 29-43 in D. L. Hallett, W. R. Edwards, and G. V. Burger, eds. 
     Pheasants: symptoms of wildlife problems on agricultural lands. North Central Sect. 
     The Wildl. Soc., Bloomington, Ind.

Dale, B. C. 1984. Birds of grazed and ungrazed grasslands in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 

Dalke, P. D. 1937. Food habits of adult pheasants in Michigan based on crop analysis 
     method. Ecology 18:199-213.

Dambach, C. A., and E. E. Good. 1940. The effect of certain land use practices on 
     populations of breeding birds in southwestern Ohio. J. Wildl. Manage. 4:63-76.

DeGraaf, R M., and D. D. Rudis. 1986. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, 
     and distribution. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-108. 491pp.

Delany, M. F., and J. A. Cox. 1986. Florida grasshopper sparrow breeding distribution 
     and abundance in 1984. Fla. Field Nat. 14:100-104.

Delany, M. F., G. T. Moore, and D. E. Progulske, Jr. 1995. Territory size and movements 
     of Florida grasshopper sparrows. J. Field Ornithol. 66:305-307.

Delany, M. F., H. M. Stevenson, and R. McCracken. 1985. Distribution, abundance, and 
     habitat of the Florida grasshopper sparrow. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:626-631.

Dickinson, T. E., J. B. Falls, and J. Kopachena. 1987. Effects of female pairing status 
     and timing of breeding on nesting productivity in western meadowlarks (Sturnella
     neglects). Can. J. Zool. 65:3093-3101.

Dixon, C. L. 1972. A population study of Savannah sparrows on Kent Island in the Bay of 
     Fundy. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor. 143pp.

Dixon, C. L. 1978. Breeding biology of the savannah sparrow on Kent Island. Auk 95:235-246.

Dorio, J. C., and A. H. Grewe. 1979. Nesting and brood rearing habitat of the upland 
     sandpiper. Minn. Acad. Sci. 45:8-11.

Dumke, R. T., and C. M. Pils. 1979. Renesting and dynamics of nest site selection by 
     Wisconsin pheasants. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:705-716.

Eklund, C. R. 1942. Ecological and mortality factors affecting the nesting of the Chinese
     pheasant in the Williamette Valley, Oregon. J. Wildl. Manage. 6:225-230.

Elliott, C. L. 1991. Diversity of wildlife associated with reclaimed and "pseudoreclaimed" 
     coal stripmine spoils in interior Alaska. Proc. Issues Technol. Manage. Impacted 
     Wildl. 5:141-146.

Elliott, P. F. 1978. Cowbird parasitism in the Kansas tall grass prairie. Auk 95:161-167.

Emlen, J. T., and J. A. Wiens. 1965. The dickcissel invasion of 1964 in southern Wisconsin.
     Passenger Pigeon 27:51-59.

Erickson, R. E., and J. E. Wiebe. 1973. Pheasants, economics and land retirement programs 
     in South Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 1:22-27.

Etter, S. L., R. E. Warner, G. B. Joselyn, and J. E. Warnock. 1988. The dynamics of 
     pheasant abundance during the transition of intensive row-cropping in Illinois. 
     Pages 111-127 in D. L. Hallett, W. R. Edwards, and G. V. Burger, eds. Pheasants: 
     symptoms of wildlife problems on agricultural lands. North Central Sect. The Wildl. 
     Soc., Bloomington, Ind.

Evans, F. L. 1964. The food of vesper, field, and chipping sparrows nesting in an abandoned 
     field in southeastern Michigan. Am. Midl. Nat. 72:57-75.

Farris, A. L., and J. H. Cole. 1981. Strategies and goals for wildlife habitat restoration 
     on agricultural lands. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 46:130-136.

Finck, E. J. 1984. Male dickcissel behavior in primary and secondary habitats. Wilson 
     Bull. 96:672-680.

Forde, J. E., N. F. Sloan, and D. A. Shown. 1984. Grassland habitat management using 
     prescribed burning in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. Prairie Nat. 16:97-110.

Francis, W. J. 1968. Temperature and humidity conditions in potential pheasant nesting 
     habitat. J. Wildl. Manage. 32:36-46.

Frank, E. J., and E. E. Woehler. 1969. Production of nesting and winter cover for pheasants 
     in Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:802-810.

Frawley, B. J., and L. B. Best. 1991. Effects of mowing on breeding bird abundance and 
     species composition in alfalfa fields. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19:135-142.

Fretwell, S. 1977. Is the dickcissel a threatened species? Am. Birds 31:923-932.

Fretwell, S. 1986. Distribution and abundance of the dickcissel. Pages 211-241 in R. F. 
     Johnston, ed. Current ornithology, Vol. 4. Plenum Press, New York.

Fried, L. A. 1940. The food habits of the ring-necked pheasant in Minnesota. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 4:27-36.

Gates, J. M., E. J. Frank, and E. E. Woehler. 1970. Management of pheasant nesting cover 
     on upland sites in relation to cropland diversion programs. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. 
     Rep. 48. 22pp.

Gates, J. M., and J. B. Hale. 1974. Seasonal movement, winter habitat use, and population
     distribution of an east central Wisconsin pheasant population. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. 
     Tech. Bull. 76. 55pp.

Gates, J. M., and J. B. Hale. 1975. Reproduction of an east central Wisconsin pheasant 
     population. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 85. 70pp.

Gates, J. M., and G. E. Ostrom. 1966. Feed grain program related to pheasant production 
     in Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 30:612-617.

Gatti, R. C., R. T. Dumke, and C. M. Pils. 1989. Habitat use and movements of female 
     ring-necked pheasants during fall and winter. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:462-475.

Gavin, T. A. 1984. Broodedness in bobolinks. Auk 101:179-181.

Gavin, T. A., and E. K. Bollinger. 1988. Reproductive correlates of breeding site 
     fidelity in bobolinks, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Ecology 69:96-103.

Geissler, P. H., and J. R. Sauer. 1990. Topics in route regression analysis. Pages 54-57 
     in J. R. Sauer and S. Droege, eds. Survey designs and statistical methods for the 
     estimation of avian population trends. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 90(1).

George, R. R., A. L. Farris, C. C. Schwartz, D. D. Humburg, and J. C. Coffey. 1979. Native 
     prairie grass pastures as nest cover for upland birds. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7:4-9.

Good, E. E., and C. A. Dambach. 1943. Effect of land use practices on breeding bird 
     populations in Ohio. J. Wildl. Manage. 7:291-297.

Goodpaster, W., and K. Maslowski. 1948. Incubation of the upland plover. Wilson Bull. 

Graber, R. R., and J. W. Graber. 1963. A comparative study of bird populations in 
     Illinois, 1906-1909 and 1956-1958. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 28:468-469.

Green, W. E. 1938. The food and cover relationships in the winter survival of the 
     ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus torquatus gmelin, in northern 
     Iowa. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 12:285-314.

Gross, A. O. 1921. The dickcissel (Spiza americana) of the Illinois prairie. 
     Auk 38:1-26, 163-184.

Gross, A. O. 1956. The recent reappearance of the dickcissel (Spiza americana) in 
     eastern North America. Auk 73:66-70.

Haensly, T. F., J. A. Crawford, and S. M. Meyers. 1987. Relationships of habitat structure 
     to nest success of ring-necked pheasants. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:421-425.

Halvorsen, H. H., and R. K. Anderson. 1980. Evaluation of grassland management for 
     wildlife in central Wisconsin. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 7:267-279.

Hands, H. M., R. D. Drobney, and M. R. Ryan. 1989. Status of the Henslow's sparrow in 
     the northcentral United States. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Mo. Coop. Res. Unit, 
     Columbia. 12pp.

Hanson, L. E., and D. R. Progulske. 1973. Movements and cover preferences of pheasants in 
     South Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 37:454-461.

Hanson, W. R. 1970. Pheasant nesting and concealment in hayfields. Auk 87:714-719.

Harmeson, J. 1974. Breeding ecology of the dickcissel. Auk 91:348-359.

Harrison, K. G. 1977. Perch height selection of grassland birds. Wilson Bull. 89:486-487.

Hartley, M. J. 1994. Passerine abundance and productivity indices in grasslands managed 
     for waterfowl nesting cover. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 59:322-327.

Hays, R. L., and A. H. Farmer. 1990. Effects of the CRP on wildlife habitat: emergency 
     haying in the midwest and pine plantings in the southeast. Trans. North Am. Wildl. 
     Nat. Resour. Conf. 55:30-39.

Hays, R. L.,  R. P. Webb, and A. H. Farmer. 1989. Effects of the conservation reserve program 
     on wildlife habitat: results of 1988 monitoring. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. 
     Conf. 54:365-376.

Hendricks, P., and C. Pidgeon. 1990. Savannah sparrows nesting in alpine habitat in Wyoming. 
     J. Field Ornithol. 61:64-66.

Henninger, W. F. 1910. Henslow's sparrow nesting in Ohio. Wilson Bull. 22:125-126.

Hergenrader, G. L. 1962. The incidence of nest parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird 
     (Molothrus ater) on roadside nesting birds in Nebraska. Auk 79:85-88.

Herkert, J. R. 1991. An ecological study of the breeding birds of grassland habitats 
     within Illinois. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Illinois, Urbana. 115pp.

Herkert, J. R. 1994a. Breeding bird communities of midwestern prairie fragments: the effects 
     of prescribed burning and habitat-area. Nat. Areas J. 14:128-135.

Herkert, J. R. 1994b. Status and habitat selection of the Henslow's sparrow in Illinois. 
     Wilson Bull. 106:35-45.

Herkert, J. R. 1994c. The effects of habitat fragmentation on midwestern grassland bird
     communities. Ecol. Appl. 4:461-471.

Herkert, J. R., R. E. Szafoni, V. M. Kleen, and J. E. Schwegman. 1993. Habitat establishment,
     enhancement, and management for forest and grassland birds in Illinois. Ill. Dep. 
     Conserv., Nat. Heritage Tech. Publ. No. 1. 20pp.

Higgins, K. F. 1975. Shorebird and gamebird nests in North Dakota cropland. Wildl. Soc. 
     Bull. 3:176-179.

Higgins, K. F., T. W. Arnold, and R. M. Barta. 1984. Breeding bird community colonization 
     of sown stands of native grasses in North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 16:177-182.

Higgins, K. F., and L. M. Kirsch. 1975. Some aspects of the breeding biology of the upland
     sandpiper in North Dakota. Wilson Bull. 87:96-102.

Hill, R. A. 1976. Host-parasite relationships of the brown-headed cowbird in a prairie 
     habitat of west-central Kansas. Wilson Bull. 88:555-565.

Horn, A. G., T. E. Dickinson, and J. B. Falls. 1993. Male quality and song repertoires in 
     western meadowlarks. Can. J. Zool. 71:1059-1061.

Huber, G. E., and A. A. Steuter. 1984. Vegetation profile and grassland bird response to 
     spring burning. Prairie Nat. 16:55-61.

Hulbert, L. C. 1986. Fire effects on tallgrass prairie. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 

Hurley, R. L., and E. W. Franks. 1976. Changes in the breeding ranges of two grassland 
     birds. Auk 93:108-115.

Hyde, A. S. 1939. The life history of Henslow's sparrow, Passerherbulus henslowi (Audubon).
     Univ. Mich. Misc. Publ. No. 41. 72pp.

Janes, S. W. 1983. Status, distribution, and habitat selection of grasshopper sparrows in 
     Morrow County, Oregon. Murrelet 64:51-54.

Janssen, R. B. 1988. A major invasion of dickcissels (1988). Loon 60:143-144.

Jarvis, R. L., and S. G. Simpson. 1978. Habitat, survival, productivity, and abundance 
     of pheasants in western Oregon, 1947-1975. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:866-874.

Jobanek, G. A. 1994. History of the bobolink in Oregon. Oreg. Birds 20:50-54.

Johnson, D. H., and M. D. Schwartz. 1993a. The conservation reserve program and grassland 
     birds. Conserv. Biol. 7:934-937.

Johnson, D. H., and M. D. Schwartz. 1993b. The conservation reserve program: habitat 
     for grassland birds. Great Plains Res. 3:273-295.

Johnson, R. G., and S. A. Temple. 1986. Assessing habitat quality for birds nesting in
     fragmented tallgrass prairies. Pages 245-249 in J. Verner, M. L. Morrison, and C. J. 
     Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates. 
     Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Johnson, R. G., and S. A. Temple. 1990. Nest predation and brood parasitism of tallgrass 
     prairie birds. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:106-111.

Johnston, D. W., and E. P. Odum. 1956. Breeding bird populations in relation to plant 
     succession on the Piedmont of Georgia. Ecology 37:50-62.

Joselyn, G. B., and J. E. Warnock. 1964. Value of federal feed grain program to production 
     of pheasants in Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 28:547-551.

Joselyn, G. B., J. E. Warnock, and S. L. Etter. 1968. Manipulation of roadside cover for 
     nesting pheasants - a preliminary report. J. Wildl. Manage. 32:217-233.

Joyner, D. E. 1978. Use of an old field habitat by bobolinks and red-winged black-birds. 
     Can. Field-Nat. 92:383-386.

Kaiser, P. H. 1979. Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) nesting in southeastern 
     South Dakota, USA.  Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 58:59-68.

Kantrud, H. A. 1981. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota 
     native grasslands. Field-Nat. 95:404-417.

Kantrud, H. A., and K. F. Higgins. 1992. Nest and nest site characteristics of some
     ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands. Prairie Nat. 24:67-84.

Kantrud, H. A., and R. L. Kologiski. 1982. Effects of soils and grazing on breeding birds 
     of uncultivated upland grasslands of the northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and 
     Wildl. Serv. Res. Rep. 15. 33pp.

Kaspari, M. 1991. Central place foraging in grasshopper sparrows: opportunism or optimal
     foraging in a variable environment? Oikos 60:307-312.

Kendeigh, S. C. 1941. Birds of a prairie community. Condor 43:165-174.

Kimball, J. W. 1948. Pheasant population characteristics and trends in the Dakotas. Trans. 
     North Am. Wildl. Conf. 13:241-314.

Kimmel, R. O., A. H. Berner, R. J. Welsh, B. S. Haroldson, and S. B. Malchow. 1992. 
     Population responses of grey partridge (Perdix perdix), ring-necked pheasant 
     (Phasianus colchicus), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) to farm programs in 
     Minnesota. Gibier Faune Sauvage 9:797-806.

Kirsch, L. M. 1974. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens. Wildl. Soc. 
     Bull. 2:124-129.

Kirsch, L. M., and K. F. Higgins. 1976. Upland sandpiper nesting and management in North 
     Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 4:16-20.

Klonglan, E. D. 1955. Pheasant nesting and production in Winnebago County, Iowa, 1954. Ia. 
     Acad. Sci. 62:626-637.

Knapton, R. W. 1988. Nesting success is higher for polygynously mated females than for 
     monogamously mated females in the eastern meadowlark. Auk 105:325-329.

Knight, R. L. 1989. Second Tennessee breeding record of savannah sparrows, with comments 
     on its expansion into the southern Appalachians. Migrant 60:69-71.

Knopf, F. L. 1994. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands. Stud. Avian Biol. 15:247-257.

Knopf, F. L., J. A. Sedgwick, and R. W. Cannon. 1988. Guild structure of a riparian 
     avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:280-290.

Korschgen, L. J. 1964. Foods and nutrition of Missouri and midwestern pheasants. Trans. 
     North Am. Wildl. Conf. 29:159-181.

Kuck, T. L., R. B. Dahlgren, and D. R. Progulske. 1970. Movements and behavior of hen 
     pheasants during the nesting season. J. Wildl. Manage. 34:626-630.

Labisky, R. F., J. A. Harper, and F. Greeley. 1964. Influence of land use, calcium, and 
     weather on the distribution and abundance of pheasants in Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. 
     Surv. Biol. Notes 51:1-19.

Lachlan, C., and R. P. Bray. 1976. Habitat selection by cock pheasants in spring. J. Appl. 
     Ecol. 13:691-704.

Lanyon, W. E. 1953. Meadowlarks in Wisconsin, Part 1. Historical and ecological aspects 
     of distribution. Passenger Pigeon 15:99-112.

Lanyon, W. E. 1956a. Ecological aspects of the sympatric distribution of meadowlarks in 
     the north-central states. Ecology 37:98-108.

Lanyon, W. E. 1956b. Territory in the meadowlarks, genus Sturnella. Ibis 90:485-489.

Lanyon, W. E. 1957. The comparative biology of the meadowlarks (Sturnella) in 
     Wisconsin. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club No. 1. 267pp.

Larson, D. L., and C. E. Bock. 1986. Determining avian habitat preference by bird-
     centered vegetation sampling. Pages 37-43 in J. Verner, J. L. Morrison, and C. J. 
     Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates. 
     Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Laubach, R. 1984. Breeding birds of Sheeder prairie preserve in west-central Iowa. Proc. 
     Ia. Acad. Sci. 91:152-163.

Lauber, T. B. 1991. Birds and the conservation reserve program: a retrospective study. 
     M.S. Thesis, Univ. Maine, Orono. 252pp.

Leedy, D. L. 1949. Ohio pheasant nesting surveys based on farmer interviews. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 13:274-286.

Leedy, D. L., and W. B. Hendershot. 1947. The ring-necked pheasant and its management in 
     Ohio. Oh. Dep. Nat. Resour. Wildl. Conserv. Bull. No. 1. 16pp.

Leptich, D. J. 1992. Winter habitat use by hen pheasants in southern Idaho. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 56:376-380.

Linder, R. L., D. L. Lyon, and C. P. Agee. 1960. An analysis of pheasant nesting in
     south-central Nebraska. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Conf. 25:214-230.

Lindmeier, J. P. 1960. Plover, rail, and godwit nesting on a study area in Mahhonen 
     County, Minnesota. Flicker 32:5-9.

Loughrey, A. G., and R. H. Stinson. 1955. Feeding habits of juvenile ring-necked pheasants 
     on Pelee Island, Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. 69:59-65.

Lowther, P. E. 1984. Repeat of a 1916 bird census in northwestern Iowa. Proc. Ia. Acad. 
     Sci. 91:87-91.

Lyon, L. J. 1954. Pheasant winter roosting cover preference in north-central Colorado. J. 
     Wildl. Manage. 18:179-184.

Maher, W. J. 1979. Nestling diets of prairie passerine birds at Matador, Saskatchewan, 
     Canada. Ibis 121:437-452.

McNair, D. B. 1982. Lark sparrows breed in Richmond County, N.C. Chat 46:1-8.

McNair, D. B. 1983. Additional information on a historical breeding record of lark sparrow 
     in North Carolina. Chat 47:73-75.

McNair, D. B. 1984. Breeding status of the grasshopper sparrow in the coastal plain of 
     the Carolinas, with notes on behavior. Chat 48:14.

McNair, D. B. 1985. A comparison of oology and nest record card data in evaluating the 
     reproductive biology of lark sparrows (Chondestes grammacus). Southwestern Nat. 

McNicholl, M. K. 1988. Ecological and human influences on Canadian populations of 
     grassland birds. Int. Counc. Bird Preservation Tech. Publ. 7:1-25.

Meanley, B. 1943a. Nesting of the upland plover in Baltimore County, Maryland. Auk 

Meanley, B. 1943b. Upland plover in Adams County, Pennsylvania. Auk 60:450.

Meanley, B. 1963. Nesting ecology and habits of the dickcissel on the Arkansas grand 
     prairie. Wilson Bull. 75:280.

Meunier, M., and J. Bedard. 1984. Nestling foods of the savannah sparrow. Can. J. Zool.

Meyers, S. M., J. A. Crawford, T. R. Haensly, and W. J. Castillo. 1988. Use of cover types 
     and survival of ring-necked pheasant broods. Northwest Sci. 62:36-40.

Miller, C. K., and L. C. McEwen. 1995. Diet of nesting savannah sparrows in interior 
     Alaska. J. Field Ornithol. 66:152-158.

Mitchell, G. J. 1967. The upland plover and its status in relation to environmental 
     conditions and situations, past and present. Blue Jay 25:58-63.

Monson, G. 1941. The effect of revegetation on the small bird population in Arizona. 
     J. Wildl. Manage. 5:395-397.

Mumford, R. E., and C. E. Keller. 1984. The birds of Indiana. Indiana Univ. Press, 
     Bloomington. 376pp.

Musselman, T. E. 1935. Upland plover (Bartramia longicauda) increasing in Adams County,
     Illinois. Auk 52:447.

Nelson, D. R., R. O. Kimmel, and M. J. Frydendall. 1990. Ring-necked pheasant and gray 
     partridge brood habitat in roadsides and managed grasslands. Pages 103-112 in K. E. 
     Church, R. E. Warner, and S. J. Brady, eds. Perdix V: gray partridge and ring-necked 
     pheasant workshop. Kans. Dep. Wildl. and Parks, Emporia.

Newman, G. A. 1970. Cowbird parasitism and nesting success of lark sparrows in southern 
     Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 82:304-309.

Nicholson, W. H. 1936. Notes on the habits of the Florida grasshopper sparrow. Auk 

Oetting, R. B., and J. F. Cassel. 1971. Waterfowl nesting on interstate highway 
     right-of-way in North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 35:774-781.

Ohio Agricultural Statistics Service. 1989. Ohio agricultural statistics and Ohio 
     Department of Agriculture annual report. Columbus. 100pp.

Olson, R. A., and L. D. Flake. 1975. Nesting of ring-necked pheasants in eastern South 
     Dakota. Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 54:126-136.

Osborne, D. R. and A. T. Peterson. 1984. Decline of the upland sandpiper, Bartramia 
     longicauda, in Ohio: an endangered species. Oh. J. Sci.84:8-10.

Overmire, T. G. 1962. Nesting of the dickcissel in Oklahoma. Auk 79:115-116.

Owens, R. A., and M. T. Myres. 1973. Effects of agriculture upon populations of native 
     passerine birds of an Alberta fescue grassland. Can. J. Zool. 51:697-713.

Paxton, R. O., W. J. Boyle, Jr., and D. A. Cutler. 1988. Continental survey. Am. Birds

Pearce, J. 1945. The pheasant in the northwest. Pages 32-66 in W. L. McAtee, ed. The 
     ring-necked pheasant. Am. Wildl. Inst., Washington, D.C.

Perritt, J. E., and L. B. Best. 1989. Effects of weather on the breeding ecology of 
     vesper sparrows in Iowa crop fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 121:355-360.

Peterjohn, B. G. 1989. The birds of Ohio. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington. 237pp.

Peterjohn, B. G., and D. L. Rice. 1991. The Ohio breeding bird atlas. Oh. Dep. Nat. 
     Resour., Columbus. 416pp.

Peterson, A. 1983. Observations on habitat selection by Henslow's sparrow in Broome 
     County, New York. Kingbird 33:155-164.

Poland, J. L. 1936. Upland plovers found breeding in Berkeley County, West Virginia. 
     Auk 53:444.

Potter, P. E. 1972. Territorial behavior in savannah sparrows in southeastern Michigan. 
     Wilson Bull. 84:48-59.

Reed, J. M. 1986. Vegetation structure and vesper sparrow territory location. Wilson 
     Bull. 98:144-147.

Reinking, D. L., and D. P. Hendricks. 1993. Occurrence and nesting of Henslow's sparrow 
     in Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 26:33-36.

Renken, R. B., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1987. Nongame bird communities in managed grasslands 
     in North Dakota. Can. Field-Nat. 101:551-557.

Reynolds, R. E., T. L. Shaffer, J. R. Sauer, and B. G. Peterjohn. 1994. Conservation 
     reserve program: benefit for grassland birds in the northern plains. Trans. North 
     Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 59:328-336.

Reynolds, T. D., and C. H. Trost. 1980. The response of native vertebrate populations to 
     crested wheatgrass planting and grazing by sheep. J. Range Manage. 33:122-125.

Riley, T. Z. 1993. Effects of CRP on ring-necked pheasants in Iowa (1985-91). Proc. 
     Midwest Fish Wildl. Conf. 55:171.

Rising, J. D. 1987. Geographic variation of sexual dimorphism in size of savannah 
     sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis): a test of hypotheses. Evolution 

Risser, P. G., E. C. Birney, H. D. Blocker, S. W. May, W. J. Parton, and J. A. Wiens. 
     1981. The true prairie ecosystem. US/IBP Synthesis Ser. 16, Hutchinson Ross Publ. 
     Co., Stroudsburg, Pa. 557pp.

Robbins, C. S., D. Bystrak, and P. H. Geissler. 1986. The breeding bird survey: its 
     first fifteen years, 1965-1979. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 157. 196 pp.

Robel, R. J., J. H. Briggs, A. D. Dayton, and L. C. Hurlbert. 1970. Relationships between 
     visual obstruction measurements and weight of grassland vegetation. J. Range Manage.

Robertson, W. J., Jr. 1958. Investigations of ring-necked pheasants in Illinois. Ill. Dep.
     Conserv. Tech. Bull. 1. 137pp.

Robins, J. D. 1971a. A study of Henslow's sparrow in Michigan. Wilson Bull. 83:39-48.

Robins, J. D. 1971b. Differential niche utilization in a grassland sparrow. Ecology

Rodenhouse, N. L., and L. B. Best. 1983. Breeding ecology of vesper sparrows in corn and 
     soybean fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 110:265-275.

Rodenhouse, N. L., and L. B. Best. 1994. Foraging patterns of vesper sparrows (Pooecetes
     gamineus) breeding in cropland. Am. Midl. Nat. 131:196-206.

Roseberry, J. L., and W. D. Klimstra. 1970. The nesting ecology and reproductive performance 
     of the eastern meadowlark. Wilson Bull. 82:243-267.

Ross, H. A. 1980. The reproductive rates of yearling and older ipswich sparrows, Passerculus
     sandwichensis primceps. Can. J. Zool. 58:1557-1563.

Rotenberry, J. T., and J. A. Wiens. 1980. Temporal variation in habitat structure and 
     shrub-steppe bird dynamics. Oecologia 47:1-9.

Rumble, M. A. 1987. Avian use of scoria rock outcrops. Great Basin Nat. 47:625-630.

Ryder, R. A. 1980. Effects of grazing on bird habitats. Pages 51-66 in R. M. DeGraaf, 
     tech. coord. Proc. workshop management of western forests and grasslands for nongame 
     birds. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-86.

Salinger, H. E. 1952. A pheasant breeding population study on irrigated lands in 
     southwestern Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 116:409-418.

Sample, D. W. 1989. Grassland birds in southern Wisconsin: habitat preference, population   
     trends, and response to land use changes. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. 588pp.

Samson, F. B. 1980. Island biogeography and the conservation of nongame birds. Trans. North 
     Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 45:245-251.

Sather-Blair, S., and R. L. Linder. 1980. Pheasant use of South Dakota wetlands during the
     winter. Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 59:147-155.

Schaid, T. A., D. W. Uresk, W. L. Tucker, and R. L. Linder. 1983. Effects of surface mining 
     on the vesper sparrow in the northern Great Plains. J. Range Manage. 36:500-503.

Schartz, R L., and J. L. Zimmerman. 1971. The time and energy budget of the male dickcissel
     (Spiza americana). Condor 73:65-76.

Sedgwick, J. A. 1987. Avian habitat relationships in pinyon-juniper woodland. Wilson Bull.

Seibert, P. 1993. Henslow's sparrow in Tulsa County, Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 

Sharp, W. M., and H. E. McClure. 1945. The pheasant in the sandhill region of Nebraska. 
     Pages 203-233 in W. L. McAtee, ed. The ring-necked pheasant. Am. Wildl. Inst., 
     Washington, D.C.

Shields, T. E. 1935. A study of the savannah sparrow in West Virginia. Wilson Bull. 

Shugart, H. H., and D. James. 1973. Ecological succession of breeding bird populations 
     in northwestern Arkansas. Auk 90:62-77.

Skinner, R. M. 1975. Grassland use patterns and prairie bird populations in Missouri. 
     Pages 171-180 in M. K. Wali, ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Univ. North Dakota Press, 
     Grand Forks.

Skousen, J. G., and J. D. Brotherson. 1982. Behavior and habitat preferences of ring-necked
     pheasants during late winter in central Utah. Great Basin Nat. 42:562-566.

Smith, C. R. 1992. Henslow's sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii. Pages 315330 in K. J. Schneider 
     and D. M. Pence, eds. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the northeast. 
     U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Newton Corner, Mass. 400pp.

Smith, R. L. 1963. Some ecological notes on the grasshopper sparrow. Wilson Bull. 75:159-165.

Snyder, D. L., V. Riemenschneider, and V. W. Inman. 1987. The upland sandpiper, Bartramia 
     longicauda, breeding area in South Bend, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 96:537-542.

Snyder, W. D. 1984. Ring-necked pheasant nesting ecology and wheat farming on the high 
     plains. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:878-888.

Sodhi, N. S. 1992. Comparison between urban and rural prairie Saskatchewan: urbanization 
     and short-term population trends. Can. Field-Nat. 106:210-215.

Speirs, J. M., and R. Orenstein. 1965. Bird populations in fields of Ontario County. Can.
     Field-Nat. 81:175-183.

Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1972. Population estimates of breeding birds in North 
     Dakota. Auk 89:766-788.

Stoddard, H. L. 1922. Bird notes from southern Wisconsin. Wilson Bull. 34:67-79.

Sullivan, P. T. 1992. Site guide: where to find a bobolink in Oregon. Oreg. Birds 18:55.

Sutton, G. M. 1959. The nesting fringillids of the Edwin S. George Reserve, southeastern 
     Michigan, Part IV. Jack-Pine Warbler 37:127-151.

Swanson, D. A., D. P. Scott, and D. L. Risley. 1995. Wildlife benefits of the conservation
     reserve program in Ohio. J. Soil Water Conserv. 50:In Press.

Tabor, R. D. 1947. The dickcissel in Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 10:39-46.

Tate, J., Jr. 1986. The blue list for 1986. Am. Birds 40:227-236.

Tester, J. R., and W. M. Marshall. 1961. A study of certain plant and animal interrelations 
     on a native prairie in northwestern Minnesota. Minn. Mus. Nat. Hist. Occ. Pap. 8:1-51.

Troutman, K. R., G. Denny, and R. W. Brucker. 1979. Relicts of the past. Pages 132-157 in 
     M. B. Lafferty, ed. Ohio's natural heritage. Oh. Acad. Sci., Columbus.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1984. 1982 census of agriculture, Vol. 
     1, Part 35. U.S. Gov. Printing Off., Washington, D.C. 431 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Habitat suitability index models: ring-necked pheasant.
     U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. Draft. 56 pp.

van den Driessche, R., S. D. McConnell, and J. D. Hopper. 1994. First confirmed breeding 
     record for the upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda, in British Columbia. Can. 
     Field-Nat. 108:89-91.

Van Horne, B. 1983. Density as a misleading indicator of habitat quality. J. Wildl. Manage.

Verser, D. W. 1990. Henslow's sparrow in northeast Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 

Vickery, P. D., M. L. Hunter, Jr., and S. M. Melvin. 1994. Effects of habitat area on the
     distribution of grassland birds in Maine. Conserv. Biol. 8:1087-1097.

Vickery, P. D., M. L. Hunter, and J. V. Wells. 1992. Use of a new reproductive index to 
     evaluate relationship between habitat quality and breeding success. Auk 109:697-705.

Volkert, W. K. 1992. Response of grassland birds to a large-scale prairie planting project.
     Passenger Pigeon 54:191-196.

Walcheck, K. C. 1970. Nesting bird ecology of four plant communities in the Missouri River 
     breaks, Montana. Wilson Bull. 82:370-382.

Walkinshaw, L. W. 1940. Some Michigan notes on the grasshopper sparrow. Jack-Pine Warbler 

Warner, R. E. 1979. Use of cover by pheasant broods in east-central Illinois. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 43:334-346.

Warner, R. E. 1984. Effects of changing agriculture on ring-necked pheasant brood movements 
     in Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:1014-1018.

Warner, R. E. 1992. Nest ecology of grassland passerines on road rights-of-way in central
     Illinois. Biol. Conserv. 59:1-7.

Warner, R. E., and L. M. David. 1982. Woody habitat and severe winter mortality of 
     ring-necked pheasants in central Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:923-932.

Warner, R. E., L. M. David, and G. B. Joselyn. 1992. Costs and benefits of roadside 
     management for ring-necked pheasants in Illinois. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 20:279-285.

Warner, R. E., and S. L. Etter. 1985. Farm conservation measures to benefit wildlife, 
     especially pheasant populations. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 

Warner, R. E., and S. L. Etter. 1986. The dynamics of agriculture and ring-necked pheasant 
     populations in the corn belt, USA. J. Wild Pheasant Assoc. 11:76-89.

Warner, R. E., and S. L. Etter. 1989. Hay cutting and the survival of pheasants: a 
     long-term perspective. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:455-461.

Warner, R. E., S. L. Etter, G. B. Joselyn, and J. A. Ellis. 1984. Declining survival of 
     ring-necked pheasant chicks in Illinois agricultural ecosystems. J. Wildl. Manage.

Warner, R. E., and G. B. Joselyn. 1986. Responses of Illinois ring-necked pheasant 
     populations to block roadside management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:525-532.

Warner, R. E., G. B. Joselyn, and S. L. Etter. 1987. Factors affecting roadside nesting 
     by pheasants in Illinois. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15:221-228.

Warnock, J. E., and G. B. Joselyn. 1964. Nesting of pheasants in soybean fields. J. Wildl.
     Manage. 28:589-592.

Weatherhead, P. J. 1979. Ecological correlates of monogamy in tundra breeding savannah 
     sparrows. Auk 96:391-401.

Welsh, D. A. 1975. Savannah sparrow breeding and territoriality on a Nova Scotia dune beach. 
     Auk 92:235-251.

Welsh, R. J., and R. O. Kimmel. 1991. Impacts of the federal conservation reserve and 
     reinvest in Minnesota programs on abundance of ring-necked pheasants, gray partridge, 
     and meadowlarks. Minn. Dep. Nat. Resour., Pop. Res. Unit Rep. 1991:16-22.

Westemeier, R. L. 1989. Upland sandpipers on Illinois prairie-chicken sanctuaries. Ill. Nat.
     Hist. Surv. Rep. No. 284. 2pp.

Wetmore, A., and F. C. Lincoln. 1928. The dickcissel in Maryland. Auk 45:508-509.

Wheelwright, H. T., and J. D. Rising. 1993. Savannah sparrow, (Passerculus sandwichensis). 
     Pages 1-28 in A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The birds of North America, No. 45. Acad. 
     Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Pa., and Am. Ornithol. Union, Washington, D.C.

White, R. P. 1983. Distribution and habitat preference of the upland sandpiper (Bartramia
     longicauda) in Wisconsin. Am. Birds 37:16-22.

Whitmore, R C. 1979a. Short-term change in vegetation and its effect on grasshopper 
     sparrows in West Virginia. Auk 96:621-625.

Whitmore, R. C. 1979b. Temporal variation in the selected habitats of a guild of grassland 
     sparrows. Wilson Bull. 91:592-598.

Whitmore, R. C. 1980. Reclaimed surface mines as avian habitat islands in the eastern forest.
     Am. Birds 34:13-14.

Whitmore, R. C. 1981. Structural characteristics of grasshopper sparrow habitat. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 45:811-814.

Whitmore, R. C., and G. A. Hall. 1978. The response of passerine species to a new resource: 
     reclaimed surface mines in West Virginia. Am. Birds 32:6-9.

Whitmore, R. W., K. P. Pruess, and R. E. Gold. 1986. Insect food selection by 2-week-old
     ring-necked pheasant chicks. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:223-228.

Wiens, J. A. 1963. Aspects of cowbird parasitism in southern Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 

Wiens, J. A. 1969. An approach to the study of ecological relationships among grassland 
     birds. Ornithol. Monogr. 8:1-93.

Wiens, J. A. 1973a. Interterritorial habitat variation in grasshopper and savannah 
     sparrows. Ecology 54:877-884.

Wiens, J. A. 1973b. Pattern and process in grassland bird communities. Ecol. Monogr. 

Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1979. Diet niche relationships among North American 
     grassland and shrub-steppe birds. Oecologia 42:253-292.

Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1981. Habitat associations and community structure of 
     birds in shrub-steppe environments. Ecol. Monogr. 51:21-41.

Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1985. Response of breeding passerine birds to rangeland
     alteration in a North American shrubsteppe locality. J. Appl. Ecol. 22:655-668.

Wiley, H., and J. Croft. 1964. Ecological notes on Henslow's sparrow near Louisville. Ky.
     Warbler 40:39-41.

Wittenberger, J. F. 1978. The breeding biology of an isolated bobolink population in Oregon.
     Condor 80:355-371.

Wittenberger, J. F. 1980. Vegetation structure, food supply, and polygyny in bobolinks   
     (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Ecology 6:140-150.

Wittenberger, J. F. 1982. Factors affecting how male and female bobolinks apportion parental
     investments. Condor 84:22-39.

Wood, A. K., and J. D. Brotherson. 1981. Microenvironment and nest site selection by 
     ring-necked pheasants in Utah. Great Basin Nat. 41:457-460.

Wooley, J. B., Jr., L. B. Best, and W. R. Clark. 1985. Impacts of no-till row cropping on 
     upland wildlife. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf 40:157-168.

Wootton, J. T., and E. K. Bollinger. 1992. Bobolink polygyny in a homogeneous habitat: a 
     test of the asynchronous settlement model. Am. Nat. 140:1050-1057.

Wootton, J. T., E. K. Bollinger, and C. J. Hibbard. 1986. Mating systems in homogeneous
     habitats: the effects of female uncertainty, knowledge, costs, and random settlement. 
     Am. Nat. 128:499-512.

Wray, T., K. A. Strait, and R C. Whitmore. 1982. Reproductive success of grassland sparrows 
     on a reclaimed surface mine in West Virginia. Auk 99:157-164.

Wray, T., and R. C. Whitmore. 1979. Effects of vegetation on nesting success of vesper 
     sparrows. Auk 96:802-805.

Wright, V., and P. Otte. 1962. A central Iowa pheasant nesting study, 1961. Proc. Ia. Acad. 
     Sci. 69:252-259.

Zembal, R., K. J. Kramer, R J. Bransfield, and N. Gilbert. 1988. A survey of Belding's 
     savannah sparrows in California. Am. Birds 42:1233-1236.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1966. Polygyny in the dickcissel. Auk 83:534-546.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1971. The territory and its density dependent effect in Spiza americana. 
     Auk 88:591-612.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1982. Nesting success of dickcissels (Spiza americana) in preferred and 
     less preferred habitats. Auk 99:292-298.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1983. Cowbird parasitism of dickcissels in different habitats and at 
     different nest densities. Wilson Bull. 95:7-22.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1988. Breeding season habitat selection by the Henslow's sparrow 
     (Ammodramus henslowii) in Kansas. Wilson Bull. 100:17-24.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1992. Density-independent factors affecting the avian diversity of 
     the tallgrass prairie community. Wilson Bull. 104:85-94.

Zimmerman, J. L., and E. J. Finck. 1982. Success in a secondary habitat: the dickcissel in 
     the tallgrass prairie. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 8:47-49.

Previous Section -- Summary and Research Needs
Return to Contents
Next Section -- Appendix A

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logo logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: Webmaster
Page Last Modified: Friday, 01-Feb-2013 19:41:12 EST
Sioux Falls, SD [sdww54]