Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Ailes, I. W. 1980. Breeding biology and habitat use of the upland sandpiper in central Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 42:53-63. Ailes, I. W., and J. E. Toepfer. 1977. Home range and daily movement of radio-tagged upland sandpipers in central Wisconsin. Inland Bird Band. News 49:203-212. Aldrich, J. W. 1948. The breeding distribution of the dickcissel. Audubon Field Notes 2:12-13. Alsop, F. J., III. 1979. Population status and management considerations for Tennessee's threatened and endangered bird species. Unpubl. Rep., East Tennessee Univ., Kingsport. 200pp. Anderson, S. A., M. McKinstry, and K. Shelley. 1994. Reclaiming minelands to benefit wildlife. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 59:303-308. Applegate, R. D., and A. G. Willms. 1987. Distribution and population trend of western meadowlarks in Illinois. Prairie Nat. 19:145-148. Askins, R. A. 1993. Population trends in grassland, shrubland, and forest birds in eastern North America. Pages 1-34 in D. M. Power, ed. Current ornithology, Vol. 11. Plenum Press, New York. Baker, D. L., and F. S. Guthery. 1990. Effects of continuous grazing on habitat and density of ground-foraging birds in South Texas. J. Range Manage. 43:2-5. Bartmann, R. M. 1969. Pheasant nesting on soil bank land in northern Utah. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:1020-1023. Baskett, T. S. 1947. Nesting and production of the ring-necked pheasant in north-central Iowa. Ecol. Monogr. 17:1-30. Baskett, T. S., D. A. Darrow, D. L. Hallett, M. J. Armbruster, J. A. Ellis, B. F. Sparrowe, and P. A. Korte. 1980. A handbook for terrestrial habitat evaluation in central Missouri. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 133. 155pp. Basore, N. S., L. B. Best, and J. B. Wooley, Jr. 1986. Bird nesting in Iowa no-tillage and tilled cropland. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:19-28. Beck, H. H. 1956. Status of the upland plover in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Auk 73:202-204. Bedard, J., and G. LaPointe. 1984. The savannah sparrow territorial system: can habitat features be related to breeding success? Can. J. Zool. 62:1819-1828. Bent, A. C. 1929. Life histories of North American shore birds. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 146. 420pp. Bent, A. C. 1958. Life histories of North American blackbirds, orioles, tanagers, and allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bu11. 211. 490pp. Bent, A. C. 1968. Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 237. 1020pp. Berger, A. J. 1968. Pooecetes gramineus gramineus (Gmelin): Eastern vesper sparrow. Pages 863-882 in 0. L. Austin, ed. Life histories of North American cardinals, grosbeaks, buntings, towhees, finches, sparrows, and allies. U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 237. 1020pp. Berthelsen, P. S., L. M. Smith, and C. L. Coffman. 1989. CRP land and game bird production in the Texas high plains. J. Soil Water Conserv. 44:504-507. Berthelsen, P. S., L. M. Smith, and R. R. George. 1990. Ring-necked pheasant nesting ecology and production on CRP lands on the Texas southern high plains. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 55:46-56. Best, L. B. 1972. First-year effects of sagebrush control on two sparrows. J. Wildl. Manage. 36:534-544. Best, L. B. 1983. Bird use of fencerows: implications of contemporary fencerow management practices. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 11:343-347 Best, L. B. 1986. Conservation tillage: ecological traps for nesting birds? Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:308-317. Best, L. B., and N. L. Rodenhouse. 1984. Territory preference of vesper sparrows in cropland. Wilson Bull. 96:72-82. Blankespoor, G. W. 1980. Prairie restoration: effects on nongame birds. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:667-672. Blankespoor, G. W., and H. Krause. 1982. The breeding birds of Minnehaha County, South Dakota: then (1907-1916) and now (1971-1975). Am. Birds 36:22-27. Bock, C. E., and J. H. Bock. 1987. Avian habitat occupancy following fire in a Montana shrubsteppe. Prairie Nat. 19:153-158. Bock, C. E., and B. Webb. 1984. Birds as grazing indicator species in southeastern Arizona. J. Wildl. Manage.48:1045-1059. Bollinger, E. K., P. B. Bollinger, and T. A. Gavin. 1990. Effects of hay-cropping on eastern populations of the bobolink. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:142-150. Bollinger, E. K., and T. A. Gavin. 1989. The effects of site quality on breeding site fidelity in bobolinks. Auk 106:584-594. Bollinger, E. K., and T. A. Gavin. 1992. Eastern bobolink populations: ecology and conservation in an agricultural landscape. Pages 497-506 in J. M. Hagan, III and D. W. Johnston, eds. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. Bollinger, E. K., T. A. Gavin, and D. C. McIntyre. 1988. Comparison of transects and circular plots for estimating bobolink densities. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:777-786. Bowen, B. S., and A. D. Kruse. 1993. Effects of grazing on nesting by upland sandpipers in southcentral North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 57:291-301. Bowen, D. E., Jr. 1976. Coloniality, reproductive success, and habitat interactions in upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda). Ph.D. Thesis, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. 127pp. Bowles, M. L., K. Kerr, R. H. Thom, and D. E. Birkenholz. 1981. Threatened, endangered, and extirpated birds of Illinois prairies. Oh. Biol. Surv., Biol. Notes No. 14:257-260. Braband, L. 1984. Railroad grasslands as bird and mammal habitats in central Iowa. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 9:86-90. Bragg, T. B. 1982. Seasonal variations in fuel and fuel consumption by fires in a bluestem prairie. Ecology 63:7-11. Brooks, E. W. 1988. A third post-1875 nesting of dickcissels in New York State. Kingbird 38:237-239. Brooks, W. S. 1971. Songbird communities-comparison of sedge-forb meadow and willow shrub areas. Passenger Pigeon 33:39-45. Brown, D. A. 1988. Nesting dickcissels in Chattooga County, Georgia. Oriole 53:34-35. Bryan, G. G., and L. B. Best. 1991. Bird abundance and species richness in grassed waterways in Iowa rowcrop fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 126:90-102. Bryan, G. G., and L. B. Best. 1994. Avian nest density and success in grassed waterways in Iowa rowcrop fields. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 22:583-592. Buhnerkempe, J. E., and R L. Westemeier. 1988. Breeding biology and habitat of upland sandpipers on prairie chicken sanctuaries in Illinois. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 81:153-162. Burger, G. V. 1966. Observations on aggressive behavior of male ring-necked pheasants in Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 30:57-64. Burger, L. D., L. W. Burger, and J. Faaborg. 1994. Effects of prairie fragmentation on predation on artificial nests. J. Wildl. Manage. 58:249-254. Burley, J. B. 1989. Multi-model habitat suitability index analysis in the Red River Valley. Landscape Urban Plann. 17:261-280. Buss, I. O., and A. S. Hawkins. 1939. The upland plover at Faville Grove, Wisconsin. Wilson Bull. 51:202-220. Camp, M., and L. B. Best. 1994. Nest density and nesting success of birds in roadsides adjacent to rowcrop fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 131:347-358. Carroll, J. P., and R. D. Sayler. 1990. Nest habitat and success of ring-necked pheasants on Mallard Island, North Dakota. Pages 315-331 in K. E. Church, R. E. Warner, and S. J. Brayd, eds. Perdix V: gray partridge and ring-necked pheasant workshop. Kans. Dep. Wildl. and Parks, Emporia. Carter, J. W. 1992. Upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda. Pages 235-252 in K. J. Schneider and D. M. Pence, eds. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Newton Corner, Mass. 400pp. Castrale, J. S. 1983. Selection of song perches by sagebrush-grassland birds. Wilson Bull. 95:647-655. Castrale, J. S. 1985. Responses of wildlife to various tillage conditions. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 50:142-156. Clawson, R. L. 1991. Henslow's sparrow habitat, site fidelity, and reproduction in Missouri. Fed. Aid Perf. Rep., Mo. Dep. Conserv., Proj. W-14-R-45. 18pp. Cody, M. L. 1968. On the methods of resource division in grassland bird communities. Am. Nat. 102:107-147. Crowell, D. K., C. C. Carpenter, and D. G. Huffman. 1982. Nest sharing by a lark sparrow. Auk 99:591-592. Dahlgren, R. B. 1988. Distribution and abundance of the ring-necked pheasant in North America. Pages 29-43 in D. L. Hallett, W. R. Edwards, and G. V. Burger, eds. Pheasants: symptoms of wildlife problems on agricultural lands. North Central Sect. The Wildl. Soc., Bloomington, Ind. Dale, B. C. 1984. Birds of grazed and ungrazed grasslands in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 42:102-105. Dalke, P. D. 1937. Food habits of adult pheasants in Michigan based on crop analysis method. Ecology 18:199-213. Dambach, C. A., and E. E. Good. 1940. The effect of certain land use practices on populations of breeding birds in southwestern Ohio. J. Wildl. Manage. 4:63-76. DeGraaf, R M., and D. D. Rudis. 1986. New England wildlife: habitat, natural history, and distribution. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-108. 491pp. Delany, M. F., and J. A. Cox. 1986. Florida grasshopper sparrow breeding distribution and abundance in 1984. Fla. Field Nat. 14:100-104. Delany, M. F., G. T. Moore, and D. E. Progulske, Jr. 1995. Territory size and movements of Florida grasshopper sparrows. J. Field Ornithol. 66:305-307. Delany, M. F., H. M. Stevenson, and R. McCracken. 1985. Distribution, abundance, and habitat of the Florida grasshopper sparrow. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:626-631. Dickinson, T. E., J. B. Falls, and J. Kopachena. 1987. Effects of female pairing status and timing of breeding on nesting productivity in western meadowlarks (Sturnella neglects). Can. J. Zool. 65:3093-3101. Dixon, C. L. 1972. A population study of Savannah sparrows on Kent Island in the Bay of Fundy. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor. 143pp. Dixon, C. L. 1978. Breeding biology of the savannah sparrow on Kent Island. Auk 95:235-246. Dorio, J. C., and A. H. Grewe. 1979. Nesting and brood rearing habitat of the upland sandpiper. Minn. Acad. Sci. 45:8-11. Dumke, R. T., and C. M. Pils. 1979. Renesting and dynamics of nest site selection by Wisconsin pheasants. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:705-716. Eklund, C. R. 1942. Ecological and mortality factors affecting the nesting of the Chinese pheasant in the Williamette Valley, Oregon. J. Wildl. Manage. 6:225-230. Elliott, C. L. 1991. Diversity of wildlife associated with reclaimed and "pseudoreclaimed" coal stripmine spoils in interior Alaska. Proc. Issues Technol. Manage. Impacted Wildl. 5:141-146. Elliott, P. F. 1978. Cowbird parasitism in the Kansas tall grass prairie. Auk 95:161-167. Emlen, J. T., and J. A. Wiens. 1965. The dickcissel invasion of 1964 in southern Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 27:51-59. Erickson, R. E., and J. E. Wiebe. 1973. Pheasants, economics and land retirement programs in South Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 1:22-27. Etter, S. L., R. E. Warner, G. B. Joselyn, and J. E. Warnock. 1988. The dynamics of pheasant abundance during the transition of intensive row-cropping in Illinois. Pages 111-127 in D. L. Hallett, W. R. Edwards, and G. V. Burger, eds. Pheasants: symptoms of wildlife problems on agricultural lands. North Central Sect. The Wildl. Soc., Bloomington, Ind. Evans, F. L. 1964. The food of vesper, field, and chipping sparrows nesting in an abandoned field in southeastern Michigan. Am. Midl. Nat. 72:57-75. Farris, A. L., and J. H. Cole. 1981. Strategies and goals for wildlife habitat restoration on agricultural lands. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 46:130-136. Finck, E. J. 1984. Male dickcissel behavior in primary and secondary habitats. Wilson Bull. 96:672-680. Forde, J. E., N. F. Sloan, and D. A. Shown. 1984. Grassland habitat management using prescribed burning in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota. Prairie Nat. 16:97-110. Francis, W. J. 1968. Temperature and humidity conditions in potential pheasant nesting habitat. J. Wildl. Manage. 32:36-46. Frank, E. J., and E. E. Woehler. 1969. Production of nesting and winter cover for pheasants in Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:802-810. Frawley, B. J., and L. B. Best. 1991. Effects of mowing on breeding bird abundance and species composition in alfalfa fields. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 19:135-142. Fretwell, S. 1977. Is the dickcissel a threatened species? Am. Birds 31:923-932. Fretwell, S. 1986. Distribution and abundance of the dickcissel. Pages 211-241 in R. F. Johnston, ed. Current ornithology, Vol. 4. Plenum Press, New York. Fried, L. A. 1940. The food habits of the ring-necked pheasant in Minnesota. J. Wildl. Manage. 4:27-36. Gates, J. M., E. J. Frank, and E. E. Woehler. 1970. Management of pheasant nesting cover on upland sites in relation to cropland diversion programs. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. Rep. 48. 22pp. Gates, J. M., and J. B. Hale. 1974. Seasonal movement, winter habitat use, and population distribution of an east central Wisconsin pheasant population. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 76. 55pp. Gates, J. M., and J. B. Hale. 1975. Reproduction of an east central Wisconsin pheasant population. Wis. Dep. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 85. 70pp. Gates, J. M., and G. E. Ostrom. 1966. Feed grain program related to pheasant production in Wisconsin. J. Wildl. Manage. 30:612-617. Gatti, R. C., R. T. Dumke, and C. M. Pils. 1989. Habitat use and movements of female ring-necked pheasants during fall and winter. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:462-475. Gavin, T. A. 1984. Broodedness in bobolinks. Auk 101:179-181. Gavin, T. A., and E. K. Bollinger. 1988. Reproductive correlates of breeding site fidelity in bobolinks, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. Ecology 69:96-103. Geissler, P. H., and J. R. Sauer. 1990. Topics in route regression analysis. Pages 54-57 in J. R. Sauer and S. Droege, eds. Survey designs and statistical methods for the estimation of avian population trends. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 90(1). George, R. R., A. L. Farris, C. C. Schwartz, D. D. Humburg, and J. C. Coffey. 1979. Native prairie grass pastures as nest cover for upland birds. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7:4-9. Good, E. E., and C. A. Dambach. 1943. Effect of land use practices on breeding bird populations in Ohio. J. Wildl. Manage. 7:291-297. Goodpaster, W., and K. Maslowski. 1948. Incubation of the upland plover. Wilson Bull. 60:188. Graber, R. R., and J. W. Graber. 1963. A comparative study of bird populations in Illinois, 1906-1909 and 1956-1958. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 28:468-469. Green, W. E. 1938. The food and cover relationships in the winter survival of the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus torquatus gmelin, in northern Iowa. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 12:285-314. Gross, A. O. 1921. The dickcissel (Spiza americana) of the Illinois prairie. Auk 38:1-26, 163-184. Gross, A. O. 1956. The recent reappearance of the dickcissel (Spiza americana) in eastern North America. Auk 73:66-70. Haensly, T. F., J. A. Crawford, and S. M. Meyers. 1987. Relationships of habitat structure to nest success of ring-necked pheasants. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:421-425. Halvorsen, H. H., and R. K. Anderson. 1980. Evaluation of grassland management for wildlife in central Wisconsin. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 7:267-279. Hands, H. M., R. D. Drobney, and M. R. Ryan. 1989. Status of the Henslow's sparrow in the northcentral United States. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Mo. Coop. Res. Unit, Columbia. 12pp. Hanson, L. E., and D. R. Progulske. 1973. Movements and cover preferences of pheasants in South Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 37:454-461. Hanson, W. R. 1970. Pheasant nesting and concealment in hayfields. Auk 87:714-719. Harmeson, J. 1974. Breeding ecology of the dickcissel. Auk 91:348-359. Harrison, K. G. 1977. Perch height selection of grassland birds. Wilson Bull. 89:486-487. Hartley, M. J. 1994. Passerine abundance and productivity indices in grasslands managed for waterfowl nesting cover. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 59:322-327. Hays, R. L., and A. H. Farmer. 1990. Effects of the CRP on wildlife habitat: emergency haying in the midwest and pine plantings in the southeast. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 55:30-39. Hays, R. L., R. P. Webb, and A. H. Farmer. 1989. Effects of the conservation reserve program on wildlife habitat: results of 1988 monitoring. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 54:365-376. Hendricks, P., and C. Pidgeon. 1990. Savannah sparrows nesting in alpine habitat in Wyoming. J. Field Ornithol. 61:64-66. Henninger, W. F. 1910. Henslow's sparrow nesting in Ohio. Wilson Bull. 22:125-126. Hergenrader, G. L. 1962. The incidence of nest parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) on roadside nesting birds in Nebraska. Auk 79:85-88. Herkert, J. R. 1991. An ecological study of the breeding birds of grassland habitats within Illinois. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Illinois, Urbana. 115pp. Herkert, J. R. 1994a. Breeding bird communities of midwestern prairie fragments: the effects of prescribed burning and habitat-area. Nat. Areas J. 14:128-135. Herkert, J. R. 1994b. Status and habitat selection of the Henslow's sparrow in Illinois. Wilson Bull. 106:35-45. Herkert, J. R. 1994c. The effects of habitat fragmentation on midwestern grassland bird communities. Ecol. Appl. 4:461-471. Herkert, J. R., R. E. Szafoni, V. M. Kleen, and J. E. Schwegman. 1993. Habitat establishment, enhancement, and management for forest and grassland birds in Illinois. Ill. Dep. Conserv., Nat. Heritage Tech. Publ. No. 1. 20pp. Higgins, K. F. 1975. Shorebird and gamebird nests in North Dakota cropland. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 3:176-179. Higgins, K. F., T. W. Arnold, and R. M. Barta. 1984. Breeding bird community colonization of sown stands of native grasses in North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 16:177-182. Higgins, K. F., and L. M. Kirsch. 1975. Some aspects of the breeding biology of the upland sandpiper in North Dakota. Wilson Bull. 87:96-102. Hill, R. A. 1976. Host-parasite relationships of the brown-headed cowbird in a prairie habitat of west-central Kansas. Wilson Bull. 88:555-565. Horn, A. G., T. E. Dickinson, and J. B. Falls. 1993. Male quality and song repertoires in western meadowlarks. Can. J. Zool. 71:1059-1061. Huber, G. E., and A. A. Steuter. 1984. Vegetation profile and grassland bird response to spring burning. Prairie Nat. 16:55-61. Hulbert, L. C. 1986. Fire effects on tallgrass prairie. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 9:138-142. Hurley, R. L., and E. W. Franks. 1976. Changes in the breeding ranges of two grassland birds. Auk 93:108-115. Hyde, A. S. 1939. The life history of Henslow's sparrow, Passerherbulus henslowi (Audubon). Univ. Mich. Misc. Publ. No. 41. 72pp. Janes, S. W. 1983. Status, distribution, and habitat selection of grasshopper sparrows in Morrow County, Oregon. Murrelet 64:51-54. Janssen, R. B. 1988. A major invasion of dickcissels (1988). Loon 60:143-144. Jarvis, R. L., and S. G. Simpson. 1978. Habitat, survival, productivity, and abundance of pheasants in western Oregon, 1947-1975. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:866-874. Jobanek, G. A. 1994. History of the bobolink in Oregon. Oreg. Birds 20:50-54. Johnson, D. H., and M. D. Schwartz. 1993a. The conservation reserve program and grassland birds. Conserv. Biol. 7:934-937. Johnson, D. H., and M. D. Schwartz. 1993b. The conservation reserve program: habitat for grassland birds. Great Plains Res. 3:273-295. Johnson, R. G., and S. A. Temple. 1986. Assessing habitat quality for birds nesting in fragmented tallgrass prairies. Pages 245-249 in J. Verner, M. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. Johnson, R. G., and S. A. Temple. 1990. Nest predation and brood parasitism of tallgrass prairie birds. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:106-111. Johnston, D. W., and E. P. Odum. 1956. Breeding bird populations in relation to plant succession on the Piedmont of Georgia. Ecology 37:50-62. Joselyn, G. B., and J. E. Warnock. 1964. Value of federal feed grain program to production of pheasants in Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 28:547-551. Joselyn, G. B., J. E. Warnock, and S. L. Etter. 1968. Manipulation of roadside cover for nesting pheasants - a preliminary report. J. Wildl. Manage. 32:217-233. Joyner, D. E. 1978. Use of an old field habitat by bobolinks and red-winged black-birds. Can. Field-Nat. 92:383-386. Kaiser, P. H. 1979. Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) nesting in southeastern South Dakota, USA. Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 58:59-68. Kantrud, H. A. 1981. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands. Field-Nat. 95:404-417. Kantrud, H. A., and K. F. Higgins. 1992. Nest and nest site characteristics of some ground-nesting, non-passerine birds of northern grasslands. Prairie Nat. 24:67-84. Kantrud, H. A., and R. L. Kologiski. 1982. Effects of soils and grazing on breeding birds of uncultivated upland grasslands of the northern Great Plains. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Res. Rep. 15. 33pp. Kaspari, M. 1991. Central place foraging in grasshopper sparrows: opportunism or optimal foraging in a variable environment? Oikos 60:307-312. Kendeigh, S. C. 1941. Birds of a prairie community. Condor 43:165-174. Kimball, J. W. 1948. Pheasant population characteristics and trends in the Dakotas. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Conf. 13:241-314. Kimmel, R. O., A. H. Berner, R. J. Welsh, B. S. Haroldson, and S. B. Malchow. 1992. Population responses of grey partridge (Perdix perdix), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), and meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) to farm programs in Minnesota. Gibier Faune Sauvage 9:797-806. Kirsch, L. M. 1974. Habitat management considerations for prairie chickens. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 2:124-129. Kirsch, L. M., and K. F. Higgins. 1976. Upland sandpiper nesting and management in North Dakota. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 4:16-20. Klonglan, E. D. 1955. Pheasant nesting and production in Winnebago County, Iowa, 1954. Ia. Acad. Sci. 62:626-637. Knapton, R. W. 1988. Nesting success is higher for polygynously mated females than for monogamously mated females in the eastern meadowlark. Auk 105:325-329. Knight, R. L. 1989. Second Tennessee breeding record of savannah sparrows, with comments on its expansion into the southern Appalachians. Migrant 60:69-71. Knopf, F. L. 1994. Avian assemblages on altered grasslands. Stud. Avian Biol. 15:247-257. Knopf, F. L., J. A. Sedgwick, and R. W. Cannon. 1988. Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:280-290. Korschgen, L. J. 1964. Foods and nutrition of Missouri and midwestern pheasants. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Conf. 29:159-181. Kuck, T. L., R. B. Dahlgren, and D. R. Progulske. 1970. Movements and behavior of hen pheasants during the nesting season. J. Wildl. Manage. 34:626-630. Labisky, R. F., J. A. Harper, and F. Greeley. 1964. Influence of land use, calcium, and weather on the distribution and abundance of pheasants in Illinois. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 51:1-19. Lachlan, C., and R. P. Bray. 1976. Habitat selection by cock pheasants in spring. J. Appl. Ecol. 13:691-704. Lanyon, W. E. 1953. Meadowlarks in Wisconsin, Part 1. Historical and ecological aspects of distribution. Passenger Pigeon 15:99-112. Lanyon, W. E. 1956a. Ecological aspects of the sympatric distribution of meadowlarks in the north-central states. Ecology 37:98-108. Lanyon, W. E. 1956b. Territory in the meadowlarks, genus Sturnella. Ibis 90:485-489. Lanyon, W. E. 1957. The comparative biology of the meadowlarks (Sturnella) in Wisconsin. Publ. Nuttall Ornithol. Club No. 1. 267pp. Larson, D. L., and C. E. Bock. 1986. Determining avian habitat preference by bird- centered vegetation sampling. Pages 37-43 in J. Verner, J. L. Morrison, and C. J. Ralph, eds. Wildlife 2000: modeling habitat relationships of terrestrial vertebrates. Univ. Wisconsin Press, Madison. Laubach, R. 1984. Breeding birds of Sheeder prairie preserve in west-central Iowa. Proc. Ia. Acad. Sci. 91:152-163. Lauber, T. B. 1991. Birds and the conservation reserve program: a retrospective study. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Maine, Orono. 252pp. Leedy, D. L. 1949. Ohio pheasant nesting surveys based on farmer interviews. J. Wildl. Manage. 13:274-286. Leedy, D. L., and W. B. Hendershot. 1947. The ring-necked pheasant and its management in Ohio. Oh. Dep. Nat. Resour. Wildl. Conserv. Bull. No. 1. 16pp. Leptich, D. J. 1992. Winter habitat use by hen pheasants in southern Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 56:376-380. Linder, R. L., D. L. Lyon, and C. P. Agee. 1960. An analysis of pheasant nesting in south-central Nebraska. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Conf. 25:214-230. Lindmeier, J. P. 1960. Plover, rail, and godwit nesting on a study area in Mahhonen County, Minnesota. Flicker 32:5-9. Loughrey, A. G., and R. H. Stinson. 1955. Feeding habits of juvenile ring-necked pheasants on Pelee Island, Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. 69:59-65. Lowther, P. E. 1984. Repeat of a 1916 bird census in northwestern Iowa. Proc. Ia. Acad. Sci. 91:87-91. Lyon, L. J. 1954. Pheasant winter roosting cover preference in north-central Colorado. J. Wildl. Manage. 18:179-184. Maher, W. J. 1979. Nestling diets of prairie passerine birds at Matador, Saskatchewan, Canada. Ibis 121:437-452. McNair, D. B. 1982. Lark sparrows breed in Richmond County, N.C. Chat 46:1-8. McNair, D. B. 1983. Additional information on a historical breeding record of lark sparrow in North Carolina. Chat 47:73-75. McNair, D. B. 1984. Breeding status of the grasshopper sparrow in the coastal plain of the Carolinas, with notes on behavior. Chat 48:14. McNair, D. B. 1985. A comparison of oology and nest record card data in evaluating the reproductive biology of lark sparrows (Chondestes grammacus). Southwestern Nat. 30:213-224. McNicholl, M. K. 1988. Ecological and human influences on Canadian populations of grassland birds. Int. Counc. Bird Preservation Tech. Publ. 7:1-25. Meanley, B. 1943a. Nesting of the upland plover in Baltimore County, Maryland. Auk 60:603. Meanley, B. 1943b. Upland plover in Adams County, Pennsylvania. Auk 60:450. Meanley, B. 1963. Nesting ecology and habits of the dickcissel on the Arkansas grand prairie. Wilson Bull. 75:280. Meunier, M., and J. Bedard. 1984. Nestling foods of the savannah sparrow. Can. J. Zool. 62:23-27. Meyers, S. M., J. A. Crawford, T. R. Haensly, and W. J. Castillo. 1988. Use of cover types and survival of ring-necked pheasant broods. Northwest Sci. 62:36-40. Miller, C. K., and L. C. McEwen. 1995. Diet of nesting savannah sparrows in interior Alaska. J. Field Ornithol. 66:152-158. Mitchell, G. J. 1967. The upland plover and its status in relation to environmental conditions and situations, past and present. Blue Jay 25:58-63. Monson, G. 1941. The effect of revegetation on the small bird population in Arizona. J. Wildl. Manage. 5:395-397. Mumford, R. E., and C. E. Keller. 1984. The birds of Indiana. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington. 376pp. Musselman, T. E. 1935. Upland plover (Bartramia longicauda) increasing in Adams County, Illinois. Auk 52:447. Nelson, D. R., R. O. Kimmel, and M. J. Frydendall. 1990. Ring-necked pheasant and gray partridge brood habitat in roadsides and managed grasslands. Pages 103-112 in K. E. Church, R. E. Warner, and S. J. Brady, eds. Perdix V: gray partridge and ring-necked pheasant workshop. Kans. Dep. Wildl. and Parks, Emporia. Newman, G. A. 1970. Cowbird parasitism and nesting success of lark sparrows in southern Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 82:304-309. Nicholson, W. H. 1936. Notes on the habits of the Florida grasshopper sparrow. Auk 53:318-319. Oetting, R. B., and J. F. Cassel. 1971. Waterfowl nesting on interstate highway right-of-way in North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 35:774-781. Ohio Agricultural Statistics Service. 1989. Ohio agricultural statistics and Ohio Department of Agriculture annual report. Columbus. 100pp. Olson, R. A., and L. D. Flake. 1975. Nesting of ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota. Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 54:126-136. Osborne, D. R. and A. T. Peterson. 1984. Decline of the upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda, in Ohio: an endangered species. Oh. J. Sci.84:8-10. Overmire, T. G. 1962. Nesting of the dickcissel in Oklahoma. Auk 79:115-116. Owens, R. A., and M. T. Myres. 1973. Effects of agriculture upon populations of native passerine birds of an Alberta fescue grassland. Can. J. Zool. 51:697-713. Paxton, R. O., W. J. Boyle, Jr., and D. A. Cutler. 1988. Continental survey. Am. Birds 42:1265-1344. Pearce, J. 1945. The pheasant in the northwest. Pages 32-66 in W. L. McAtee, ed. The ring-necked pheasant. Am. Wildl. Inst., Washington, D.C. Perritt, J. E., and L. B. Best. 1989. Effects of weather on the breeding ecology of vesper sparrows in Iowa crop fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 121:355-360. Peterjohn, B. G. 1989. The birds of Ohio. Indiana Univ. Press, Bloomington. 237pp. Peterjohn, B. G., and D. L. Rice. 1991. The Ohio breeding bird atlas. Oh. Dep. Nat. Resour., Columbus. 416pp. Peterson, A. 1983. Observations on habitat selection by Henslow's sparrow in Broome County, New York. Kingbird 33:155-164. Poland, J. L. 1936. Upland plovers found breeding in Berkeley County, West Virginia. Auk 53:444. Potter, P. E. 1972. Territorial behavior in savannah sparrows in southeastern Michigan. Wilson Bull. 84:48-59. Reed, J. M. 1986. Vegetation structure and vesper sparrow territory location. Wilson Bull. 98:144-147. Reinking, D. L., and D. P. Hendricks. 1993. Occurrence and nesting of Henslow's sparrow in Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 26:33-36. Renken, R. B., and J. J. Dinsmore. 1987. Nongame bird communities in managed grasslands in North Dakota. Can. Field-Nat. 101:551-557. Reynolds, R. E., T. L. Shaffer, J. R. Sauer, and B. G. Peterjohn. 1994. Conservation reserve program: benefit for grassland birds in the northern plains. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 59:328-336. Reynolds, T. D., and C. H. Trost. 1980. The response of native vertebrate populations to crested wheatgrass planting and grazing by sheep. J. Range Manage. 33:122-125. Riley, T. Z. 1993. Effects of CRP on ring-necked pheasants in Iowa (1985-91). Proc. Midwest Fish Wildl. Conf. 55:171. Rising, J. D. 1987. Geographic variation of sexual dimorphism in size of savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis): a test of hypotheses. Evolution 41:514-524. Risser, P. G., E. C. Birney, H. D. Blocker, S. W. May, W. J. Parton, and J. A. Wiens. 1981. The true prairie ecosystem. US/IBP Synthesis Ser. 16, Hutchinson Ross Publ. Co., Stroudsburg, Pa. 557pp. Robbins, C. S., D. Bystrak, and P. H. Geissler. 1986. The breeding bird survey: its first fifteen years, 1965-1979. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Resour. Publ. 157. 196 pp. Robel, R. J., J. H. Briggs, A. D. Dayton, and L. C. Hurlbert. 1970. Relationships between visual obstruction measurements and weight of grassland vegetation. J. Range Manage. 23:295-297. Robertson, W. J., Jr. 1958. Investigations of ring-necked pheasants in Illinois. Ill. Dep. Conserv. Tech. Bull. 1. 137pp. Robins, J. D. 1971a. A study of Henslow's sparrow in Michigan. Wilson Bull. 83:39-48. Robins, J. D. 1971b. Differential niche utilization in a grassland sparrow. Ecology 52:1065-1070. Rodenhouse, N. L., and L. B. Best. 1983. Breeding ecology of vesper sparrows in corn and soybean fields. Am. Midl. Nat. 110:265-275. Rodenhouse, N. L., and L. B. Best. 1994. Foraging patterns of vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gamineus) breeding in cropland. Am. Midl. Nat. 131:196-206. Roseberry, J. L., and W. D. Klimstra. 1970. The nesting ecology and reproductive performance of the eastern meadowlark. Wilson Bull. 82:243-267. Ross, H. A. 1980. The reproductive rates of yearling and older ipswich sparrows, Passerculus sandwichensis primceps. Can. J. Zool. 58:1557-1563. Rotenberry, J. T., and J. A. Wiens. 1980. Temporal variation in habitat structure and shrub-steppe bird dynamics. Oecologia 47:1-9. Rumble, M. A. 1987. Avian use of scoria rock outcrops. Great Basin Nat. 47:625-630. Ryder, R. A. 1980. Effects of grazing on bird habitats. Pages 51-66 in R. M. DeGraaf, tech. coord. Proc. workshop management of western forests and grasslands for nongame birds. U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-86. Salinger, H. E. 1952. A pheasant breeding population study on irrigated lands in southwestern Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 116:409-418. Sample, D. W. 1989. Grassland birds in southern Wisconsin: habitat preference, population trends, and response to land use changes. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison. 588pp. Samson, F. B. 1980. Island biogeography and the conservation of nongame birds. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 45:245-251. Sather-Blair, S., and R. L. Linder. 1980. Pheasant use of South Dakota wetlands during the winter. Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 59:147-155. Schaid, T. A., D. W. Uresk, W. L. Tucker, and R. L. Linder. 1983. Effects of surface mining on the vesper sparrow in the northern Great Plains. J. Range Manage. 36:500-503. Schartz, R L., and J. L. Zimmerman. 1971. The time and energy budget of the male dickcissel (Spiza americana). Condor 73:65-76. Sedgwick, J. A. 1987. Avian habitat relationships in pinyon-juniper woodland. Wilson Bull. 99:413-431. Seibert, P. 1993. Henslow's sparrow in Tulsa County, Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 26:43. Sharp, W. M., and H. E. McClure. 1945. The pheasant in the sandhill region of Nebraska. Pages 203-233 in W. L. McAtee, ed. The ring-necked pheasant. Am. Wildl. Inst., Washington, D.C. Shields, T. E. 1935. A study of the savannah sparrow in West Virginia. Wilson Bull. 47:35-42. Shugart, H. H., and D. James. 1973. Ecological succession of breeding bird populations in northwestern Arkansas. Auk 90:62-77. Skinner, R. M. 1975. Grassland use patterns and prairie bird populations in Missouri. Pages 171-180 in M. K. Wali, ed. Prairie: a multiple view. Univ. North Dakota Press, Grand Forks. Skousen, J. G., and J. D. Brotherson. 1982. Behavior and habitat preferences of ring-necked pheasants during late winter in central Utah. Great Basin Nat. 42:562-566. Smith, C. R. 1992. Henslow's sparrow, Ammodramus henslowii. Pages 315330 in K. J. Schneider and D. M. Pence, eds. Migratory nongame birds of management concern in the northeast. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Newton Corner, Mass. 400pp. Smith, R. L. 1963. Some ecological notes on the grasshopper sparrow. Wilson Bull. 75:159-165. Snyder, D. L., V. Riemenschneider, and V. W. Inman. 1987. The upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda, breeding area in South Bend, Indiana. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 96:537-542. Snyder, W. D. 1984. Ring-necked pheasant nesting ecology and wheat farming on the high plains. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:878-888. Sodhi, N. S. 1992. Comparison between urban and rural prairie Saskatchewan: urbanization and short-term population trends. Can. Field-Nat. 106:210-215. Speirs, J. M., and R. Orenstein. 1965. Bird populations in fields of Ontario County. Can. Field-Nat. 81:175-183. Stewart, R. E., and H. A. Kantrud. 1972. Population estimates of breeding birds in North Dakota. Auk 89:766-788. Stoddard, H. L. 1922. Bird notes from southern Wisconsin. Wilson Bull. 34:67-79. Sullivan, P. T. 1992. Site guide: where to find a bobolink in Oregon. Oreg. Birds 18:55. Sutton, G. M. 1959. The nesting fringillids of the Edwin S. George Reserve, southeastern Michigan, Part IV. Jack-Pine Warbler 37:127-151. Swanson, D. A., D. P. Scott, and D. L. Risley. 1995. Wildlife benefits of the conservation reserve program in Ohio. J. Soil Water Conserv. 50:In Press. Tabor, R. D. 1947. The dickcissel in Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 10:39-46. Tate, J., Jr. 1986. The blue list for 1986. Am. Birds 40:227-236. Tester, J. R., and W. M. Marshall. 1961. A study of certain plant and animal interrelations on a native prairie in northwestern Minnesota. Minn. Mus. Nat. Hist. Occ. Pap. 8:1-51. Troutman, K. R., G. Denny, and R. W. Brucker. 1979. Relicts of the past. Pages 132-157 in M. B. Lafferty, ed. Ohio's natural heritage. Oh. Acad. Sci., Columbus. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1984. 1982 census of agriculture, Vol. 1, Part 35. U.S. Gov. Printing Off., Washington, D.C. 431 pp. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Habitat suitability index models: ring-necked pheasant. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. Draft. 56 pp. van den Driessche, R., S. D. McConnell, and J. D. Hopper. 1994. First confirmed breeding record for the upland sandpiper, Bartramia longicauda, in British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. 108:89-91. Van Horne, B. 1983. Density as a misleading indicator of habitat quality. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:893-901. Verser, D. W. 1990. Henslow's sparrow in northeast Oklahoma. Bull. Okla. Ornithol. Soc. 23:9-12. Vickery, P. D., M. L. Hunter, Jr., and S. M. Melvin. 1994. Effects of habitat area on the distribution of grassland birds in Maine. Conserv. Biol. 8:1087-1097. Vickery, P. D., M. L. Hunter, and J. V. Wells. 1992. Use of a new reproductive index to evaluate relationship between habitat quality and breeding success. Auk 109:697-705. Volkert, W. K. 1992. Response of grassland birds to a large-scale prairie planting project. Passenger Pigeon 54:191-196. Walcheck, K. C. 1970. Nesting bird ecology of four plant communities in the Missouri River breaks, Montana. Wilson Bull. 82:370-382. Walkinshaw, L. W. 1940. Some Michigan notes on the grasshopper sparrow. Jack-Pine Warbler 18:50-59. Warner, R. E. 1979. Use of cover by pheasant broods in east-central Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:334-346. Warner, R. E. 1984. Effects of changing agriculture on ring-necked pheasant brood movements in Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:1014-1018. Warner, R. E. 1992. Nest ecology of grassland passerines on road rights-of-way in central Illinois. Biol. Conserv. 59:1-7. Warner, R. E., and L. M. David. 1982. Woody habitat and severe winter mortality of ring-necked pheasants in central Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 46:923-932. Warner, R. E., L. M. David, and G. B. Joselyn. 1992. Costs and benefits of roadside management for ring-necked pheasants in Illinois. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 20:279-285. Warner, R. E., and S. L. Etter. 1985. Farm conservation measures to benefit wildlife, especially pheasant populations. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf. 50:135-141. Warner, R. E., and S. L. Etter. 1986. The dynamics of agriculture and ring-necked pheasant populations in the corn belt, USA. J. Wild Pheasant Assoc. 11:76-89. Warner, R. E., and S. L. Etter. 1989. Hay cutting and the survival of pheasants: a long-term perspective. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:455-461. Warner, R. E., S. L. Etter, G. B. Joselyn, and J. A. Ellis. 1984. Declining survival of ring-necked pheasant chicks in Illinois agricultural ecosystems. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:82-88. Warner, R. E., and G. B. Joselyn. 1986. Responses of Illinois ring-necked pheasant populations to block roadside management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:525-532. Warner, R. E., G. B. Joselyn, and S. L. Etter. 1987. Factors affecting roadside nesting by pheasants in Illinois. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15:221-228. Warnock, J. E., and G. B. Joselyn. 1964. Nesting of pheasants in soybean fields. J. Wildl. Manage. 28:589-592. Weatherhead, P. J. 1979. Ecological correlates of monogamy in tundra breeding savannah sparrows. Auk 96:391-401. Welsh, D. A. 1975. Savannah sparrow breeding and territoriality on a Nova Scotia dune beach. Auk 92:235-251. Welsh, R. J., and R. O. Kimmel. 1991. Impacts of the federal conservation reserve and reinvest in Minnesota programs on abundance of ring-necked pheasants, gray partridge, and meadowlarks. Minn. Dep. Nat. Resour., Pop. Res. Unit Rep. 1991:16-22. Westemeier, R. L. 1989. Upland sandpipers on Illinois prairie-chicken sanctuaries. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv. Rep. No. 284. 2pp. Wetmore, A., and F. C. Lincoln. 1928. The dickcissel in Maryland. Auk 45:508-509. Wheelwright, H. T., and J. D. Rising. 1993. Savannah sparrow, (Passerculus sandwichensis). Pages 1-28 in A. Poole and F. Gill, eds. The birds of North America, No. 45. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, Pa., and Am. Ornithol. Union, Washington, D.C. White, R. P. 1983. Distribution and habitat preference of the upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda) in Wisconsin. Am. Birds 37:16-22. Whitmore, R C. 1979a. Short-term change in vegetation and its effect on grasshopper sparrows in West Virginia. Auk 96:621-625. Whitmore, R. C. 1979b. Temporal variation in the selected habitats of a guild of grassland sparrows. Wilson Bull. 91:592-598. Whitmore, R. C. 1980. Reclaimed surface mines as avian habitat islands in the eastern forest. Am. Birds 34:13-14. Whitmore, R. C. 1981. Structural characteristics of grasshopper sparrow habitat. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:811-814. Whitmore, R. C., and G. A. Hall. 1978. The response of passerine species to a new resource: reclaimed surface mines in West Virginia. Am. Birds 32:6-9. Whitmore, R. W., K. P. Pruess, and R. E. Gold. 1986. Insect food selection by 2-week-old ring-necked pheasant chicks. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:223-228. Wiens, J. A. 1963. Aspects of cowbird parasitism in southern Oklahoma. Wilson Bull. 75:130-134. Wiens, J. A. 1969. An approach to the study of ecological relationships among grassland birds. Ornithol. Monogr. 8:1-93. Wiens, J. A. 1973a. Interterritorial habitat variation in grasshopper and savannah sparrows. Ecology 54:877-884. Wiens, J. A. 1973b. Pattern and process in grassland bird communities. Ecol. Monogr. 43:237-270. Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1979. Diet niche relationships among North American grassland and shrub-steppe birds. Oecologia 42:253-292. Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1981. Habitat associations and community structure of birds in shrub-steppe environments. Ecol. Monogr. 51:21-41. Wiens, J. A., and J. T. Rotenberry. 1985. Response of breeding passerine birds to rangeland alteration in a North American shrubsteppe locality. J. Appl. Ecol. 22:655-668. Wiley, H., and J. Croft. 1964. Ecological notes on Henslow's sparrow near Louisville. Ky. Warbler 40:39-41. Wittenberger, J. F. 1978. The breeding biology of an isolated bobolink population in Oregon. Condor 80:355-371. Wittenberger, J. F. 1980. Vegetation structure, food supply, and polygyny in bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). Ecology 6:140-150. Wittenberger, J. F. 1982. Factors affecting how male and female bobolinks apportion parental investments. Condor 84:22-39. Wood, A. K., and J. D. Brotherson. 1981. Microenvironment and nest site selection by ring-necked pheasants in Utah. Great Basin Nat. 41:457-460. Wooley, J. B., Jr., L. B. Best, and W. R. Clark. 1985. Impacts of no-till row cropping on upland wildlife. Trans. North Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf 40:157-168. Wootton, J. T., and E. K. Bollinger. 1992. Bobolink polygyny in a homogeneous habitat: a test of the asynchronous settlement model. Am. Nat. 140:1050-1057. Wootton, J. T., E. K. Bollinger, and C. J. Hibbard. 1986. Mating systems in homogeneous habitats: the effects of female uncertainty, knowledge, costs, and random settlement. Am. Nat. 128:499-512. Wray, T., K. A. Strait, and R C. Whitmore. 1982. Reproductive success of grassland sparrows on a reclaimed surface mine in West Virginia. Auk 99:157-164. Wray, T., and R. C. Whitmore. 1979. Effects of vegetation on nesting success of vesper sparrows. Auk 96:802-805. Wright, V., and P. Otte. 1962. A central Iowa pheasant nesting study, 1961. Proc. Ia. Acad. Sci. 69:252-259. Zembal, R., K. J. Kramer, R J. Bransfield, and N. Gilbert. 1988. A survey of Belding's savannah sparrows in California. Am. Birds 42:1233-1236. Zimmerman, J. L. 1966. Polygyny in the dickcissel. Auk 83:534-546. Zimmerman, J. L. 1971. The territory and its density dependent effect in Spiza americana. Auk 88:591-612. Zimmerman, J. L. 1982. Nesting success of dickcissels (Spiza americana) in preferred and less preferred habitats. Auk 99:292-298. Zimmerman, J. L. 1983. Cowbird parasitism of dickcissels in different habitats and at different nest densities. Wilson Bull. 95:7-22. Zimmerman, J. L. 1988. Breeding season habitat selection by the Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) in Kansas. Wilson Bull. 100:17-24. Zimmerman, J. L. 1992. Density-independent factors affecting the avian diversity of the tallgrass prairie community. Wilson Bull. 104:85-94. Zimmerman, J. L., and E. J. Finck. 1982. Success in a secondary habitat: the dickcissel in the tallgrass prairie. Proc. North Am. Prairie Conf. 8:47-49.