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Techniques for Studying Nest Success of Ducks in Upland Habitats in the Prairie Pothole Region


American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. 
     6th edition. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kans. 877 pp.

Bart, J., and D. S. Robson. 1982. Estimating survivorship when the 
     subjects are visited periodically. Ecology 63:1078-1090.

Bellrose, F. C. 1976. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America. Stackpole
     Books, Harrisburg, PA. 544 p.

Broley, J. 1950. Identifying nests of the Anatidae of the Canadian 
     prairies. J. Wildl. Manage. 14:452-456.

Central Flyway Waterfowl Council. 1974. Waterfowl identification in the 
     Central Flyway. Central Flyway Waterfowl Council. 51 pp.

Girard, G. L. 1939. Life history of the shoveler. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf.

Higgins, K. F., L. M. Kirsch, and I. J. Ball, Jr. 1969. A cable-chain 
     device for locating duck nests. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:1009-1011.

Higgins, K. F., L. M. Kirsch, H. F. Duebbert, A. T. Klett, J. T. Lokemoen, 
     H. W. Miller, and A. D. Kruse. 1977. Construction and operation of 
     cable-chain drag for nest searches. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Wildl. 
     Leafl. 512. 14 pp.

Hines, B. 1978. Ducks at a distance. U. S. Department of the Interior, 
     Fish and Wildlife Service. Available from: Superintendent of 
     Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 56 pp.

Johnson, D. H. 1979. Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an
     alternative. Auk 96:651-661.

Johnson, D. H., and A. T. Klett. 1985. Quick estimates of success
     rates of duck nests. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:51-53.

Klett, A. T., and D. H. Johnson. 1982. Variability in nest survival rates 
     and implications to nesting studies. Auk 99:77-87.

Mayfield, H. 1961. Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bull.

Mayfield, H. 1975. Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bull.

Miller, H. W., and D. H. Johnson. 1978. Interpreting the results of
     nesting studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:471-476.

Weller, M. W. 1956. A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs. J. Wildl. 
     Manage. 20:111-113.

Westerskov, K. 1950. Methods for determining the age of game bird eggs. J.
     Wildl. Manage. 14:56-67.

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