Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Check-list of North American birds. 6th edition. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kans. 877 pp. Bart, J., and D. S. Robson. 1982. Estimating survivorship when the subjects are visited periodically. Ecology 63:1078-1090. Bellrose, F. C. 1976. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. 544 p. Broley, J. 1950. Identifying nests of the Anatidae of the Canadian prairies. J. Wildl. Manage. 14:452-456. Central Flyway Waterfowl Council. 1974. Waterfowl identification in the Central Flyway. Central Flyway Waterfowl Council. 51 pp. Girard, G. L. 1939. Life history of the shoveler. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Conf. 4:364-371. Higgins, K. F., L. M. Kirsch, and I. J. Ball, Jr. 1969. A cable-chain device for locating duck nests. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:1009-1011. Higgins, K. F., L. M. Kirsch, H. F. Duebbert, A. T. Klett, J. T. Lokemoen, H. W. Miller, and A. D. Kruse. 1977. Construction and operation of cable-chain drag for nest searches. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Wildl. Leafl. 512. 14 pp. Hines, B. 1978. Ducks at a distance. U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Available from: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 56 pp. Johnson, D. H. 1979. Estimating nest success: the Mayfield method and an alternative. Auk 96:651-661. Johnson, D. H., and A. T. Klett. 1985. Quick estimates of success rates of duck nests. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:51-53. Klett, A. T., and D. H. Johnson. 1982. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies. Auk 99:77-87. Mayfield, H. 1961. Nesting success calculated from exposure. Wilson Bull. 73:255-261. Mayfield, H. 1975. Suggestions for calculating nest success. Wilson Bull. 87:456-466. Miller, H. W., and D. H. Johnson. 1978. Interpreting the results of nesting studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:471-476. Weller, M. W. 1956. A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs. J. Wildl. Manage. 20:111-113. Westerskov, K. 1950. Methods for determining the age of game bird eggs. J. Wildl. Manage. 14:56-67.