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Behaviour Patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos Pairs and Broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

Tables


Table 1. Sample sizes of time-budgeting data collected on Mallard pairs and broods near Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota during 1988-91.
Hours of observationsa (number of observation periods)
  Pairs Females Broods (by age)
  Males Females with broods 1-18 days 19-35 days ≥36 days
Detroit Lakes
1988 131 134 (111) 27 (23) 4 (7) 7 (4) 15 (12)
1989 98 97 (114) 90 (84) 50 (53) 23 (20) 17 (12)
1990 92 88 (83) 76 (74) 31 (35) 27 (21) 19 (18)
1991 61 60 (58) 86 (96) 29 (39) 36 (39) 19 (18)
Kulm
1988 100 97 (89)        
1989 89 88 (90) 82 (95) 51 (62) 14 (15) 19 (18)
1990 139 138 (85) 138 (94) 37 (35) 26 (18) 76 (41)
Total 710 701 (630) 500 (466) 203 (231) 133 (117) 166(119)
aExcluding time out of sight, and rounded to nearest hour.

 

Table 2. Conditional probabilitiesa of the male's behaviour for each behaviour of the female in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota (1988-91), and Kulm, North Dakota (1988-90). Within rows, proportions that are significantly different (P≤0.05) are denoted by different letters. Highest probability in each row is shown in bold italics.
  Male Behaviour
  Feed Rest
on water
Rest
on land
Locomote Comfort Alert
Female Behaviour
  Detroit Lakes:
      Feed
0.688a 0.158 b 0.029 c 0.046 c 0.053 c 0.023 c
      Rest on water
0.319 a 0.419a 0.027 c 0.075 bc 0.115 b 0.028 c
      Rest on land
0.068 bc 0.024 cd 0.759a 0.032 cd 0.094 b 0.015 d
      Locomote
0.125 b 0.029 cd 0.017 cd 0.759a 0.052 c 0.005 d
      Comfort
0.152 b 0.061 c 0.229 b 0.065 c 0.463a 0.021 c
      Alert
0.133 b 0.061 cd 0.120 bc 0.056 d 0.123 bc 0.498 a
  Kulm:
      Feed
0.718a 0.104 b 0.025 c 0.060 bc 0.045 bc 0.044 bc
      Rest on water
0.242 b 0.536 a 0.014 d 0.096 c 0.081 c 0.019 d
      Rest on land
0.071 b 0.033 bc 0.749 a 0.048 bc 0.073 b 0.018 c
      Locomote
0.197 b 0.058 c 0.035 c 0.630 a 0.051 c 0.013 c
      Comfort
0.190 b 0.087 cd 0.161 bc 0.069 d 0.444a 0.035 d
      Alert
0.157 b 0.024 d 0.045 cd 0.073 bcd 0.095 bc 0.581a
aProbabilities in each row do not total 1.0 because the value for "other" behaviours is not listed; probabilities for other were all <0.025.

 

Table 3. Conditional probabilitiesa of the female's behaviour for each behaviour of the male in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota (1988-91), and Kulm, North Dakota (1988-90). Within rows, proportions that are significantly different (P≤0.05) are denoted by different letters. Highest probability in each row is shown in bold italics.
  Female Behaviour
  Feed Rest on water Rest on land Locomote Comfort Alert
Male Behaviour
  Detroit Lakes:
      Feed
0.806a 0.158 b 0.053 b 0.035 b 0.058 b 0.004 c
      Rest on water
0.632a 0.181 b 0.065 cd 0.028 de 0.080 c 0.007 e
      Rest on land
0.046 c 0.005 d 0.815a 0.007 d 0.121 b 0.005 d
      Locomote
0.161 b 0.028 cd 0.075 c 0.642a 0.074 c 0.006 d
      Comfort
0.180 b 0.042 c 0.211 b 0.042 c 0.508a 0.012 c
      Alert
0.398a 0.052 d 0.170 bc 0.020 d 0.116 c 0.243 b
  Kulm:
      Feed
0.828a 0.041 b 0.039 b 0.045 b 0.039 b 0.005 b
      Rest on water
0.455 a 0.348 a 0.069 b 0.051 b 0.067 b 0.003 c
      Rest on land
0.059 b 0.005 c 0.845 a 0.017 bc 0.068 b 0.003 c
      Locomote
0.249 b 0.060 c 0.094 c 0.522 a 0.051 cd 0.009 d
      Comfort
0.245 b 0.065 c 0.188 b 0.055 d 0.425a 0.015 c
      Alert
0.539a 0.034 d 0.103 c 0.032 d 0.076 cd 0.209 b
aProbabilities in each row do not total 1.0 because the value for "other" behaviours is not listed; probabilities for other were all <0.025.

 

Table 4. Conditional probabilitiesa of the brood female's behaviour for each behaviour of the brood in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota (1988-91), and Kulm, North Dakota (1988-90). Within rows, proportions that are significantly different (P≤0.05) are denoted by different letters. Highest probability in each row is shown in bold italics.
  Female Behaviour
  Feed Rest
on water
Rest
on land
Locomote Comfort Alert
Brood Behaviour
  Detroit Lakes:
      Feed
0.515a 0.272 b 0.013 d 0.113 c 0.058 cd 0.027 d
      Rest on water
0.103 b 0.636a 0.078 bc 0.045 bc 0.098 b 0.026 c
      Rest on land
0.006 d 0.006 d 0.747a 0.009 d 0.157 b 0.072 c
      Locomote
0.110 b 0.078 b 0.010 cd 0.737a 0.052 bc 0.009 d
      Comfort
0.042 c 0.060 c 0.241 b 0.040 c 0.545a 0.068 c
      Alert
0.030 b 0.052 b 0.039 c 0.033 b 0.011 b 0.824a
  Kulm:
      Feed
0.709a 0.051 bc 0.012 c 0.109 b 0.049 bc 0.068 bc
      Rest on water
0.147b 0.339 a 0.197 ab 0.044 c 0.133 b 0.130 bc
      Rest on land
0.043 cd 0.016 d 0.624 a 0.018 d 0.192 b 0.105 bc
      Locomote
0.156 b 0.026 c 0.010 c 0.694 a 0.042 c 0.067 bc
      Comfort
0.109 bc 0.021 d 0.204 b 0.043 cd 0.528a 0.092 bc
      Alert
0.008 b 0.023 b 0.017 b 0.033 b 0.023 b 0.896a
aProbabilities in each row do not total 1.0 because the value for "other" behaviours is not listed; probabilities for other were all <0.025.

 

Table 5. Conditional probabilitiesa of the brood's behaviour for each behaviour of the brood female in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota (1988-91), and Kulm, North Dakota (1989-90). Within rows, proportions that are significantly different (P≤0.05) are denoted by different letters. Highest probability in each row is shown in bold italics.
  Female Behaviour
  Feed Rest
on water
Rest
on land
Locomote Comfort Alert
Brood Behaviour
  Detroit Lakes:
      Feed
0.853a 0.021 c 0.006 c 0.087 b 0.016 c 0.000 c
      Rest on water
0.660a 0.193 b 0.009 de 0.091 c 0.033 cd 0.001 e
      Rest on land
0.026 c 0.020 c 0.834a 0.010 c 0.110 b 0.001 c
      Locomote
0.229 b 0.011 c 0.010 c 0.716a 0.018 c 0.000 c
      Comfort
0.189 b 0.040 c 0.283 ab 0.081 c 0.401a 0.000 d
      Alert
0.286 a 0.034 c 0.415a 0.043 c 0.160 b 0.055 c
  Kulm:
      Feed
0.925a 0.005 b 0.011 b 0.037 b 0.019 b 0.000 b
      Rest on water
0.713 a 0.135 b 0.043 cd 0.064 bc 0.040 cd 0.002 d
      Rest on land
0.069 bc 0.033 cd 0.714 a 0.010 cd 0.163 b 0.001 d
      Locomote
0.443 a 0.005 b 0.014 b 0.506 a 0.024 b 0.001 b
      Comfort
0.287 ab 0.022 c 0.219 b 0.044 c 0.421a 0.001 c
      Alert
0.555a 0.030 c 0.166 b 0.099 bc 0.102 bc 0.044 c
aProbabilities in each row do not total 1.0 because the value for "other" behaviours is not listed; probabilities for other were all <0.025.

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