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Behaviour Patterns of Mallard Anas Platyrhynchos Pairs and Broods in Minnesota and North Dakota

Figures


Figure 1a Figure 1b
Figure 1. Percent of time Mallard females (black bars) and males (open bars) were observed in each of five behaviour categories at two study areas in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota, 1988-91. Although females and males differed in how they allocated their time overall, none of the differences between individual bars was statistically significant (P>0.05). Range of time spent in other behaviours (sixth category, not shown) was 0.8-1.4% for females and 1.0-2.6% for males.

 

Figure 2: Two Graphs for Feeding and Resting Figure 2: Three Graphs for Locomotor, Comfort, and Alert
Figure 2. Percent of time Mallard females with broods (black bars) and without broods (open bars) were observed in each of five behaviour categories at two study areas in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota, 1988-91. Females without broods are represented largely by observations of females with males. Different letters above bars indicate statistically significant differences (P≤0.05). Range of time spent in other behaviours (sixth category, not shown) was 0.1-3.7% and 0.8-1.3% for females with and without broods, respectively.

 

Figure 3a Figure 3b
Figure 3. Percent of time Mallard broods of different ages were observed in each of four behaviour categories at two study areas in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota, 1988-91. Brood age groups were 1-18 days (black bars), 19-35 days (open bars), and ≥36 days (gray bars), bases on plumage subclasses Ia-Ic, IIa-IIb and IIc-III of Gollop & Marshall (1954). Different letters above bars indicate statistically significant differences (P≤0.05). Range of time spent alert was 0.0-1.0% and in other behaviours was 0.1-3.5%.

 

Figure 4a Figure 4b
Figure 4. Percent of feeding time Mallard broods of different ages were observed using each of four feeding methods at two study areas in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota, 1988-91. Feeding methods include dip (immersing no more than the bill and face), dunk (immersing head or head and neck), tip up (immersing upper body), and dive (full body immersion). Brood age groups were 1-18 days (black bars), 19-35 days (open bars), and ≥36 days (gray bars), based on plumage subclasses Ia-Ic, IIa-IIb, and IIc-III of Gollop & Marshall (1954). Different letters above bars indicate statistically significant differences (P≤0.05).

 

Figure 5
Figure 5. Percent of time Mallard females and males were observed in feeding (F,—), resting (R, —), locomotor (L,----), comfort (C,— • • —), and alert (A,— — —) behaviours at two study areas in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota, 1988-91, throughout the daylight hours. Percentages are plotted at the mid-point of each two-hour interval; hours are in Central Standard Time.

 

Figure 6
Figure 6. Percent of time Mallard broods and females were observed in feeding (F, —), resting (R, —), locomotor (L,----), comfort (C,— • • —), and alert(A,— — —) behaviours at two study areas in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota, and Kulm, North Dakota, 1988-91, throughout the daylight hours. Percentages are plotted at the mid-point of each two-hour interval; hours are in Central Standard Time.

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