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Migration of Birds

Cover Graphic

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Circular 16

by Frederick C. Lincoln, 1935

revised by Steven R. Peterson, 1979

revised by John L. Zimmerman, 1998
Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS

Associate Editor Peter A. Anatasi

Illustrated by Bob Hines


Preface to the 1998 Edition

Frederick C. Lincoln's "Migration of Birds" was published in 1935. Lincoln's writing style effectively communicated the wonders of bird migration to a wide audience, both young and old, experienced observers of birds as well as the simply curious. Indeed the demand for this little book was so great that it was revised in 1950 and soon was out of print again. In 1979, Steven R. Peterson developed a second revision, adding additional examples and presenting an understanding of bird migration that reflected current research. The style, figures, and most of the content of the original publication were retained, but new illustrations were added where appropriate.

In this present revision large sections of the text have remained unchanged from the previous revision or only slightly modified to make the discussion compatible with current understanding. The geographic emphasis of Lincoln and the wealth of pertinent examples added by Peterson have been maintained. I have made substantial changes, however, in sections dealing with the evolution of migration, stimulus for migration, orientation and navigation, and the influence of weather. I have also changed the emphasis of the final section to reflect current concerns. While some investigators are mentioned by name, specific studies are not cited in the text. An extensive bibliography has been included for those interested in pursuing the subject further. I have relied heavily upon the bibliographies on migration research prepared by Stanley H. Anderson and Loren W. Ayers, University of Wyoming Fish and Wildlife Coop Unit and Thomas S. Litwin, as well as bibliography in Peterson's revision. Additional citations have been suggested by Daniel R. Petit and Stephanie L. Jones, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This edition was due to the support of the Fish and Wildlife Service Regional Nongame Migratory Bird Coordinators: Tara Zimmerman, Kent Wohl, Steve Lewis, Daniel Petit, Diane Pence, Stephanie Jones, Bill Howe, and Richard Coon. I am indebted to all these investigators and most grateful for their assistance.

John Zimmerman, 1998


This resource is based on the following source:
Lincoln, Frederick C., Steven R. Peterson, and John L. Zimmerman.  1998.  
     Migration of birds. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and 
     Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.  Circular 16.  113pp.
This resource should be cited as:
Lincoln, Frederick C., Steven R. Peterson, and John L. Zimmerman.  1998.  
     Migration of birds. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Fish and 
     Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C.  Circular 16.  Jamestown, ND:
     Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Online. 
     http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/birds/migratio/index.htm
     (Version 02APR2002).

Table of Contents


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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

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(Download) migratio.zip (1.0M) -- Migration of Birds (1998 Edition)
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