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Habitat Fragmentation Effects on Birds in Grasslands and Wetlands: A Critique of Our Knowledge


Table 1. Studies showing that grassland bird species are area sensitive and confidence in methodology employed.
Species Scientific name High confidence Less confidence
Northern harrier Circus cyaneus Johnson & Igl 2001a  
Upland sandpiper Bartramia longicauda Bollinger 1995 Vickery et al. 1994
Mourning dove Zenaida macroura Johnson & Igl 2001a (s)  
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis Johnson & Igl 2001a  
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum   Vickery et al. 1994 (s)
Common yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas   Vickery et al. 1994 (s)
Clay-colored sparrow Spizella pallida Johnson & Igl 2001a Johnson & Temple 1986 (s)
Field sparrow Spizella pusilla   Vickery et al. 1994
Vesper sparrow Pooecetes gramineus Bock et al. 1999 Vickery et al. 1994
Savannah sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis Johnson & Temple 1990 (Appendix),
Herkert 1994,
Bollinger 1995
Vickery et al. 1994
Grasshopper sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Herkert 1994,
Bollinger 1995,
Johnson & Igl 2001a (v)
Johnson & Temple 1986,
Vickery et al. 1994,
Swanson et al. 1999
Baird's sparrow Ammodramus bairdii Johnson & Igl 2001a  
Henslow's sparrow Ammodramus henslowii Herkert 1994,
Bollinger 1995,
Winter 1998
Song sparrow Melospiza melodia Herkert 1994 (s), Vickery et al. 1994 (s)
Dickcissel Spiza americana Winter 1998  
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus Herkert 1994,
Bollinger 1995,
Johnson & Igl 2001a
Vickery et al. 1994
Red-winged blackbird Agelius phoeniceus Herkert 1994 (s),
Johnson & Igl 2001a (v)
Eastern meadowlark Sturnella magna Herkert 1994 Vickery et al. 1994
Western meadowlark Sturnella neglecta Bolger et al. 1997 Johnson & Temple 1986
Brown-headed cowbird Molothrus ater Johnson & Igl 2001a (s)  
American goldfinch Carduelis tristis Herkert 1994 (s)  
Notes:  Studies were categorized with "Less confidence" because of potential problems from passive sampling (Swanson et al. 1999), possible confounding of patch size effects with vegetation effects (Vickery et al. 1994), pseudoreplication (Vickery et al. 1994), or other concerns (see text). A number of other studies are not listed because of more definite problems (see text). Sensitivity in parentheses: s = preference for smaller patches; v = variable response to patch size in different study regions.

Table 2. Studies showing that grassland bird species are influenced by edge effects.
Species Studies
Clay-colored sparrow Johnson & Temple 1990a,b
Vesper sparrow Bock et al. 1999, McMaster et al. 2000
Savannah sparrow Wiens 1969, Bock et al. 1999
Grasshopper sparrow Wiens 1969, Johnson & Temple 1990b, Delisle & Savidge 1996, Helzer 1996, Bock et al. 1999
Henslow's sparrow Winter 1998, Winter et al. 2000b.
Dickcissel Winter 1998, Jensen 1999, Winter et al. 2000b
Bobolink Johnson & Temple 1990b, Helzer 1996, Bock et al. 1999
Western meadowlark Johnson & Temple 1990b, Bock et al. 1999
a  Nests were more common near edge of grassland patch but were more frequently parasitized.
b  Reanalysis (Appendix).

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