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Forest and Rangeland Birds of the United States

Natural History and Habitat Use

Tables


Table 2. Birds Occurring in Eastern Nonforest Habitats (exclusive of Great Plains)

Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Common Loon        
X
       
Pied-billed Grebe    
X
X
X
   
X
 
Horned Grebe    
X
 
X
       
Red-necked Grebe    
X
 
X
       
Double-crested Cormorant        
X
   
X
 
Anhinga    
X
 
X
   
X
 
American Bitten  
X
X
 
X
   
X
 
Least Bittern  
X
X
       
X
 
Great Blue Heron  
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
 
Great Egret  
X
X
     
X
X
 
Snowy Great  
X
X
     
X
X
 
Little Blue Heron    
X
     
X
X
 
Cattle Egret
X
X
X
     
X
X
 
Green-backed Heron  
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
Black-crowned Night-Heron    
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
Yellow-crowned Night-Heron    
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Glossy Ibis    
X
     
X
X
 
Fulvous Whistling-Duck    
X
       
X
 
Canada Goose
X
X
X
 
X
       
Wood Duck    
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
Green-winged Teal  
X
X
       
X
 
American Black Duck  
X
X
X
X
       
Mottled Duck    
X
       
X
 
Mallard
X
X
X
 
X
       
Northern Pintail    
X
           
Blue-winged Teal    
X
       
X
 
Northern Shoveler    
X
       
X
 
Gadwall    
X
X
         
American Wigeon  
X
X
 
X
       
Redhead    
X
 
X
       
Ring-necked Duck    
X
X
X
       
Greater Scaup        
X
       
Lesser Scaup    
X
 
X
       
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Common Goldeneye    
X
 
X
       
Bufflehead    
X
 
X
       
Hooded Merganser    
X
X
X
       
Common Merganser    
X
 
X
       
Red-breasted Merganser    
X
 
X
       
Ruddy Duck    
X
 
X
       
Black Vulture
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Turkey Vulture
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Osprey    
X
 
X
 
X
X
 
American Swallow-tailed Kite    
X
       
X
 
Black-shouldered Kite
X
               
Snail Kite              
X
 
Mississippi Kite          
X
X
   
Bald Eagle    
X
 
X
   
X
 
Northern Harrier  
X
X
     
X
X
 
Sharp-shinned Hawk      
X
     
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Cooper's Hawk
X
X
             
Red-shouldered Hawk      
X
   
X
X
 
Broad-winged Hawk              
X
 
Short-tailed Hawk              
X
 
Red-tailed Hawk
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Rough-legged Hawk
X
X
X
           
Golden Eagle
X
X
             
American Kestrel
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Merlin
X
X
X
     
X
X
 
Peregrine Falcon
X
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
Ring-necked Pheasant
X
X
             
Ruffed Grouse
X
               
Wild Turkey
X
X
     
X
     
Northern Bobwhite
X
       
X
     
Yellow Rail  
X
X
       
X
 
Black Rail    
X
     
X
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
King Rail    
X
       
X
 
Virginia Rail    
X
       
X
 
Sora    
X
       
X
 
Purple Gallinule    
X
       
X
 
Common Moorhen      
X
 
X
   
X
American Coot    
X
 
X
   
X
 
Limpkin      
X
     
X
 
Sandhill Crane  
X
X
       
X
 
Piping Plover        
X
       
Killdeer  
X
X
 
X
   
X
 
Greater Yellowlegs  
X
             
Lesser Yellowlegs  
X
             
Solitary Sandpiper    
X
X
X
       
Spotted Sandpiper        
X
   
X
 
Upland Sandpiper  
X
             
Common Snipe  
X
X
X
     
X
 
American Woodcock
X
X
X
X
   
X
X
 
Common Tern        
X
       
Black Tern    
X
 
X
       
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Rock Dove
X
X
             
White-crowned Pigeon              
X
 
Mourning Dove
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Common Ground-Dove
X
       
X
 
X
 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo          
X
X
X
 
Mangrove Cuckoo              
X
 
Smooth-billed Ani              
X
 
Common Barn-Owl
X
X
X
   
X
 
X
 
Eastern Screech-Owl  
X
X
     
X
X
 
Great Horned Owl
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
 
Snowy Owl
X
X
X
           
Burrowing Owl          
X
     
Barred Owl      
X
   
X
X
 
Great Gray Owl
X
X
X
X
         
Long-eared Owl
X
X
X
           
Short-eared Owl
X
X
X
       
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Common Nighthawk
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
X
 
Chuck-will's-widow          
X
 
X
 
Whip-poor-will
X
           
X
 
Chimney Swift
X
X
X
 
X
       
Ruby-throated Hummingbird
X
X
         
X
 
Belted Kingfisher    
X
 
X
   
X
 
Red-headed Woodpecker
X
X
     
X
X
   
Red-bellied Woodpecker
X
   
X
 
X
X
X
 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
X
       
X
X
X
 
Downy Woodpecker
X
   
X
 
X
X
X
 
Hairy Woodpecker    
X
 
X
X
     
Northern Flicker
X
X
     
X
 
X
 
Pileated Woodpecker              
X
 
Olive-sided Flycatcher      
X
         
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Eastern Wood-Pewee
X
         
X
   
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher      
X
         
Acadian Flycatcher      
X
   
X
   
Alder Flycatcher      
X
         
Willow Flycatcher
X
               
Least Flycatcher
X
   
X
         
Eastern Phoebe
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Great Crested Flycatcher          
X
X
X
 
Western Kingbird              
X
 
Eastern Kingbird
X
X
X
   
X
 
X
 
Gray Kingbird              
X
 
Scissor-tailed Flycatcher              
X
 
Horned Lark
X
X
             
Purple Martin
X
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
 
Tree Swallow
X
X
X
X
X
   
X
 
Northern Rough-winged Swallow
X
X
X
 
X
   
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Bank Swallow
X
X
X
 
X
       
Cliff Swallow
X
X
X
 
X
       
Barn Swallow
X
X
X
 
X
       
Gray Jay                
X
Blue Jay
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Scrub Jay          
X
     
American Crow
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Fish Crow    
X
 
X
 
X
X
 
Common Raven  
X
           
X
Black-capped Chickadee
X
   
X
       
X
Carolina Chickadee
X
   
X
 
X
X
   
Boreal Chickadee      
X
       
X
Tufted Titmouse
X
   
X
   
X
X
 
Red-breasted Nuthatch      
X
 
X
X
 
X
White-breasted Nuthatch
X
   
X
   
X
   
Brown-headed Nuthatch          
X
X
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Brown Creeper
X
   
X
 
X
X
   
Carolina Wren
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
 
Bewick's Wren
X
X
             
House Wren
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Winter Wren      
X
   
X
   
Sedge Wren  
X
         
X
 
Marsh Wren  
X
X
       
X
 
Golden-crowned Kinglet      
X
 
X
X
 
X
Ruby-crowned Kinglet      
X
 
X
X
X
X
Blue-Gray Gnatcatcher      
X
   
X
X
 
Eastern Bluebird
X
X
     
X
 
X
 
Veery      
X
         
Gray-cheeked Thrush                
X
Hermit Thrush      
X
   
X
X
 
Wood Thrush      
X
   
X
   
American Robin
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Gray Catbird
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Northern Mockingbird
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Brown Thrasher
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Water Pipit
X
X
   
X
       
Bohemian Waxwing
X
               
Cedar Waxwing
X
X
 
X
X
X
 
X
 
Northern Shrike
X
X
             
Loggerhead Shrike
X
X
     
X
 
X
 
White-eyed Vireo
X
   
X
 
X
X
X
 
Solitary Vireo      
X
 
X
X
X
 
Yellow-throated Vireo      
X
X
 
X
X
 
Warbling Vireo
X
X
X
X
X
       
Red-eyed Vireo
X
X
 
X
   
X
   
Black-whiskered Vireo              
X
 
Bachman's Warbler            
X
   
Blue-winged Warbler
X
X
             
Golden-winged Warbler
X
X
             
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Orange-crowned Warbler          
X
X
X
 
Nashville Warbler      
X
         
Northern Parula      
X
X
 
X
X
 
Yellow Warbler
X
X
X
X
X
   
X
 
Chestnut-sided Warbler  
X
 
X
         
Magnolia Warbler                
X
Cape May Warbler              
X
X
Black-throated Blue Warbler              
X
 
Yellow-rumped Warbler      
X
 
X
X
X
 
Black-throated Green Warbler            
X
X
 
Yellow-throated Warbler          
X
X
X
 
Pine Warbler          
X
X
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Prairie Warbler
X
       
X
X
X
 
Palm Warbler  
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Bay-breasted Warbler
X
               
Blackpoll Warbler                
X
Black-and-white Warbler      
X
 
X
X
X
 
American Redstart
X
   
X
     
X
 
Prothonotary Warbler      
X
X
 
X
   
Worm-eating Warbler            
X
   
Swainson's Warbler            
X
   
Ovenbird              
X
 
Northern Waterthrush      
X
   
X
X
 
Louisiana Waterthrush      
X
X
       
Kentucky Warbler      
X
X
       
Common Yellowthroat
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Hooded Warbler      
X
   
X
   
Wilson's Warbler      
X
         
Canada Warbler      
X
         
Yellow-breasted Chat
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
 
Summer Tanager          
X
X
X
 
Northern Cardinal
X
X
 
X
 
X
X
X
 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak
X
               
Blue Grosbeak
X
X
     
X
X
   
Indigo Bunting
X
X
     
X
X
X
 
Painted Bunting          
X
X
X
 
Dickcissel
X
           
X
 
Rufous-sided Towhee
X
       
X
 
X
 
Bachman's Sparrow
X
       
X
     
American Tree Sparrow
X
X
X
           
Chipping Sparrow
X
X
     
X
 
X
 
Field Sparrow
X
       
X
     
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Vesper Sparrow
X
X
     
X
     
Lark Sparrow
X
               
Savannah Sparrow
X
X
X
   
X
X
X
 
Grasshopper Sparrow
X
       
X
 
X
 
Henslow's Sparrow
X
X
             
Le Conte's Sparrow
X
X
X
           
Sharp-tailed Sparrow  
X
             
Fox Sparrow
X
       
X
     
Song Sparrow
X
X
X
     
X
X
 
Lincoln's Sparrow      
X
X
       
Swamp Sparrow  
X
X
X
   
X
X
 
White-throated Sparrow
X
X
     
X
X
   
White-crowned Sparrow
X
       
X
     
Dark-eyed Junco
X
X
           
X
Lapland Longspur
X
X
             
Snow Bunting
X
X
X
           
Bird Species
Field, glade, orchard
Pasture, wet or sedge meadows
Fresh marsh, pond
Wooded Swamp, bog, shrub swamp
Lake, stream, river
Sand pine-scrub oak
Pocosins
Everglades, mangroves, tropical hardwoods
Alpine tundra, krummholtz
Bobolink
X
X
             
Red-winged Blackbird
X
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
 
Eastern Meadowlark
X
       
X
 
X
 
Western Meadowlark
X
               
Rusty Blackbird    
X
X
 
X
X
   
Brewer's Blackbird
X
               
Boat-tailed Grackle              
X
 
Common Grackle
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
 
Brown-headed Cowbird
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
   
Orchard Oriole
X
       
X
     
Northern Oriole
X
X
 
X
X
   
X
 
Purple Finch
X
         
X
   
House Finch
X
               
Red Crossbill                
X
Common Redpoll
X
X
             
Pine Siskin
X
X
       
X
   
American Goldfinch
X
X
X
X
 
X
X
X
 
House Sparrow
X
X
             

Previous Section -- Table 1 - Birds Ocurring in Eastern Forest Types
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Next Section -- Table 3 - Birds Occuring in Great Plains Habitats

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