Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Fairly common.
HABITAT: Breeds in the Canadian subarctic, in open clearings, woodland edges, and brushy margins of burned-over areas bordered by spruce forests. During winter, inhabits brushy habitats, preferring woodlot borders and hedgerows.
NEST: Builds nest in the ground, usually in mossy hummocks surrounded by water near stunted spruce trees, often under a low shrub on a sheltered southern exposure. May also locate nest in dry clearings under small trees within 100 feet of a lake.
FOOD: At all seasons, chiefly eats seeds of weeds, grasses, and wild fruits, but includes insects in diet, especially in summer. Primarily feeds on the ground.
REFERENCES: Baumgartner in Bent 1968c, Forbush and May 1955, Kaufman in Farrand 1983c, Semple and Sutton 1932.