Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Generally inhabits high-elevation thickets and shrubs, and often dwarf conifers found in brushy canyons. In winter, found in dense brush thickets and chaparral, and gardens along the West Coast.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Openings in high-elevation coniferous forests, particularly spruce forests.
NEST: Builds a nest of bulky material, such as ferns, leaves, and dry grass, on the ground or above ground on horizontal branches of small trees, usually well concealed.
FOOD: Eats mainly seeds, shoots from plants, buds, and flowers of grasses and forbs. Also gleans small insects from trees, branches, shrubs, and grass.
REFERENCES: Verner and Boss 1980.