Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Usually inhabits coniferous or coniferous-deciduous forests, especially spruce and tamarack swamps in parts of its range. Seems to prefer open mixed forests with considerable undergrowth.
NEST: Builds a deep cup nest that is suspended from the fork of a horizontal branch, generally 3 to 20 feet above the ground, often about midway in a small conifer, but occasionally in a small deciduous tree or shrub.
FOOD: Gleans most food from twigs and foliage but occasionally hawks for flying insects. Mostly eats insects, plus a few spiders and small fruits.
REFERENCES: DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Harrison 1975, Johnsgard 1979, Petersen in Farrand 1983c, Terres 1980.