Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Uncommon to rare.
HABITAT: Inhabits open deciduous, coniferous, or mixed forests, woodland edges, burned or cutover areas with young deciduous regeneration, and willow and alder thickets along streams. Is restricted to aspen groves in parts of its range.
NEST: Builds a deep cup nest that is suspended from a horizontal, forked branch of a deciduous tree or shrub, usually 10 to 40 feet above the ground.
FOOD: Mainly (93 percent) eats animal material (insects and some spiders), most of which is gleaned from foliage and branches; catches some flying insects by hawking. Also eats some wild fruits.
REFERENCES: Chapin 1925, DeGraff et al. 1980, Johnsgard 1979, Petersen in Farrand 1983c.