Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Common and widespread.
HABITAT: Inhabits open deciduous and mixed deciduous-coniferous forests, especially streamside vegetation, but also in groves, scrubby hillside trees, and residential areas. In mixed forests, generally associated with the deciduous trees, and prefers forests with a substantial forb or shrub layer and low to intermediate canopy cover.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Scattered deciduous trees or wooded streamsides.
NEST: Builds a cup nest that is usually suspended from a horizontal branch of a deciduous tree, often poplar or aspen, generally in branches well away from the tree trunk and higher than those of other vireos (20 to 90 feet above the ground).
FOOD: Gleans much of its food from the mid to upper canopy of deciduous trees. Eats mostly animal matter but includes some small fruits.
REFERENCES: Chapin 1925, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Harrison 1975, James 1976, Johnsgard 1979.