Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Rather uncommon to common.
HABITAT: Generally associated with mature, moist deciduous forests, especially river bottom forests or north-facing slopes (in southern parts of range), and prefers open woodlands with partially open canopies. Found less frequently in wooded residential areas, seldom in dense deciduous forests, and rarely in coniferous forests.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Open, mature deciduous woodlands.
NEST: Suspends nest between the forks of a slender branch, usually near the trunk, of a deciduous tree, preferably a large oak, normally over 30 feet above the ground (range 3 to 60 feet.)
FOOD: Gleans most of its food from branches and foliage; occasionally hawks for flying insects. Mostly eats insects, spiders, and a few snails, but also a few small fruits and berries.
REFERENCES: Chapin 1925, Forbush and May 1955, James 1976, Johnsgard 1979.