Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Fairly common.
HABITAT: Occurs in open country such as plains and semideserts, in a variety of habitats from desert riparian areas up to 7,500 feet and in open woodlands in southwestern mountains. Inhabits pinyon-yucca, pinyon-juniper, pine-oak, and ponderosa pine woodlands, canyons of sycamores, and in California, open valley woodlands and grasslands of the foothills among scattered oaks, cottonwoods, and sycamores.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Tall trees for nesting.
NEST: Usually nests in fairly tall trees such as pine, oak, cottonwood, walnut, hackberry, or sycamore. Places nest near the end of a horizontal limb 8 to 40 feet, but up to 100 feet, above the ground. Also places nests in bushes and on posts.
FOOD: Primarily eats insects, but also spiders and fleshy fruits.
REFERENCES: Beal 1912, Bent 1942, Hespenheide 1964, Johnsgard 1979, Ohlendorf 1974, Terres 1980, Terrill in Farrand 1983b.