Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Occurs on plains, prairies, mesas, and flats, and around pastures, woodland clearings, ranches, and farms. Perches for long periods on tall prairie plants, limbs of dead trees, utility wires, or fences.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Open habitats with elevated perches.
NEST: Typically nests in cottonwoods, elms, or other hardwood species, in exposed sites 6 to 30 feet above the ground. Prefers isolated trees to those growing in clumps or heavier cover; occasionally uses fence posts, telephone poles, windmill towers, or buildings for nest sites.
FOOD: Flies from a perch to catch a variety of insects, but also picks up insects from the ground. Also eats few fruits, berries, and seeds.
REFERENCES: Beal 1912, Fitch 1950, Johnsgard 1979, Oberholser 1974a.