Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Inhabits gardens, residential areas, farms, orchards, open coniferous and deciduous woodlands, forest edges and clearings, wooded borders of lakes and rivers, mountain meadows, and grassland habitats with scattered trees. Prefers habitats with trees surrounded by an open area with only herbaceous vegetation and some open ground for foraging. In winter, favors weedy fields and dry scrubland.
NEST: Builds nest 1 to 25 feet, but usually 3 to 10 feet, above ground in trees, especially conifers, shrubs, or vines. Generally locates nest near the trunk and top of smaller trees, or lower in the branches and farther from the trunk in larger open-grown trees, usually well concealed.
FOOD: Generally forages on the ground in open meadows or lawn-like areas gleaning insects and seeds.
REFERENCES: Beal and McAtee 1912, DeGraff et al. 1980, DeSante in Farrand 1983c, Forbush and May 1955, Johnsgard 1979, Johnson in Bent 1968b, Stull in Bent 1968b, Walkinshaw 1944.