Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Generally associated with moist, bottomland, or swampy deciduous woods, including woods that are frequently flooded and willow-lined streamsides.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Moist woodlands with cavities for nesting.
NEST: Nests in natural cavities and old cavities of woodpeckers (especially downy woodpeckers) and chickadees in stumps or snags that are standing in or near water. Will occasionally nest in nest boxes. Usually places nest low, about 5 feet above the ground.
FOOD: Primarily eats insects gleaned from tree trunks and branches, shrubs, and fallen logs.
REFERENCES: Bent 1953a, Forbush and May 1955, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Pearson 1936, Walkinshaw 1953.