Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Generally inhabits relatively open, mature coniferous forests up to 10,000 feet in elevation. Breeds less frequently in mixed forests and in deciduous forests in the mountains, along rivers, or in gulches and canyons at lower elevations.
NEST: Builds a shallow, compact, saucer-shaped nest, saddled in a fork of a horizontal branch well out from the trunk. Usually locates nest in a coniferous tree.
FOOD: Consumes insects gleaned from foliage or branches or caught while hawking (about 82 percent of the diet) and fruits (about 18 percent).
REFERENCES: Beal 1907 in Bent 1958, Johnsgard 1979, Harrison 1979.