Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Fairly common.
HABITAT: Generally inhabits relatively arid and brushy foothills with shrubs such as sagebrush, deerbush, snowbrush, wild rose, spirea, manzanita, waxberry, and chokecherry, from 2,500 feet elevation in California to 10,500 feet in Arizona. Tends to breed at higher elevations in the south than in the north.
NEST: Builds a large, loosely constructed and deeply cupped nest on the ground or in low shrubs such as sagebrush, waxberry, and snowbrush, usually less than 2 feet above the ground.
FOOD: Forages on the ground, and eats berries, weed seeds, and insects. (Food habits studies are limited.)
REFERENCES: Bent 1968a, Harrison 1979, Johnsgard 1979.