Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Stable population throughout most of its range.
HABITAT: Inhabits nearly all types of forest within its range, preferring bottomlands with large mature trees. Generally more abundant at the edge of woodlands.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Nest trees over 10 inches dbh.
NEST: Excavates cavities in snags or in live trees with decaying heartwood. Usually chooses deciduous trees such as aspens, ashes, elms, or cottonwoods.
FOOD: Consumes a diet that is about 80 percent animal food (wood-boring beetles removed from dead and diseased trees are an important source of food). Also eats other insects, fruits, corn, nuts, and cambium.
REFERENCES: Beal 1911, Bent 1939, DeGraff et al. 1980, Johnsgard 1979, Kilham 1968, Lawrence 1967, Tate and Tate 1982, Thomas et al. 1979.