Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Common throughout most of its range.
HABITAT: Inhabits most of the wooded parts of North America, but absent or rare in arid deserts and less common in dense forests. Favors bottomlands but also inhabits open forests and woodlots, orchards, hummocks, farmyards, and urban areas.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Suitable cavity trees.
NEST: Prefers to excavate its cavity-nests near the tops of dead trees or dead limbs of live trees in fairly open tree stands. Also nests in live trees, especially if heartrot is present. Generally, excavates new cavities each year; seldom reuses old cavities or cavities of other birds. In the fall, excavates fresh holes for winter roosts.
FOOD: Consumes diet that is 75 percent animal and 25 percent vegetable material (beetles, mostly wood-boring larvae, make up a large portion of the diet). Also eats wild fruits, corn, poison sumac seeds, and mast.
REFERENCES: Beal 1911, Bent 1939, DeGraff et al. 1980, Johnsgard 1979, Kilham 1970, Lawrence 1967, Thomas 1979.