Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally common to uncommon or rare.
HABITAT: In deserts, primarily inhabits washes, riparian areas, and other habitats that support a brushy growth of mesquite and paloverde. In more northern and coastal areas, inhabits oak chaparral and riparian oak woodlands.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Trees or shrubs and berries (especially mistletoe).
NEST: Builds nest (almost exclusively by the male) in a forked limb of a mesquite, cottonwood, hackberry, willow, sycamore, oak, or citrus tree, often in a clump of mistletoe, 4 to 50 feet above the ground.
FOOD: During the breeding season, captures many insects by hawking from high perches. During other periods, primarily eats fruits and berries (especially mistletoe berries).
REFERENCES: Phillips et al. 1964, Terres 1980, Terrill in Farrand 1983c, Verner and Boss 1980.