Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally common.
HABITAT: Occurs in residential areas, farmlands, fields, and open woodland around St. Louis, where it was introduced in 1870. It is far less agressive than its relative the house sparrow, but has slowly expanded its range to western Illinois.
NEST: Nests in natural cavities, crevices, and woodpecker holes, but appears to be a weak competitor for available nesting sites.
FOOD: Feeds primarily on the ground on weed seeds, insects, and waste grain. (Little information is available on food habits.)
REFERENCES: Bent 1958, Scott et al. 1977, Van Benthuysen in Farrand 1983c.