Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Common; has extended its range in California in the past 20 years.
HABITAT: Prefers low-elevation, coastal, mesic coniferous forests of pines, cedar, tamarack, and hemlock. Also inhabits along streams and in adjacent deciduous woodlands.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Available tree cavities or rotted snags suitable for nest excavation.
NEST: Builds nest in natural cavities, or abandoned woodpecker holes, or excavates cavities in soft, rotted tree stubs. Prefers pine, oak, and Douglas-fir snags.
FOOD: Gleans much of its food from tree trunks, but also from rotting logs on the ground. Primarily eats insects but also takes spiders, some fruit pulp, and conifer seeds.
REFERENCES: Beal 1907, Bent 1946, Grinnell and Miller 1944, Root 1964, Terres 1980.