Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: In California, prefers oak woodlands; in the Great Basin and desert mountain ranges, occurs in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Greatest numbers inhabit evergreen trees in dry woodlands of the Southwest.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Nest and roost cavities.
NEST: Usually builds nest in natural cavities or old woodpecker holes, primarily in oak trees; will also use nest boxes if available. Is capable of excavating its own cavity in rotted wood.
FOOD: Gleans much of its food, which is predominantly insects, from limbs, twigs, and from the ground. Also eats leaf galls, weed seeds, pinyon nuts, acorns, oats, and cherries.
REFERENCES: Bent 1946, Dixon 1949, Johnspard 1979, Root 1964, Terres 1980, Wetmore 1964.