Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
RANGE: Resident from northern Alaska east across northern Yukon to northwestern Mackenzie, and south locally to western and central Alaska.
HABITAT: Inhabits spruce, willow, aspen, and birch stands along rivers at the northern limit of the boreal forest. During winter, wanders widely through river valleys.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Natural cavities, abandoned woodpecker holes, or trees with soft, dead wood for nesting.
NEST: Builds nest inside an abandoned woodpecker hole or a natural cavity in a tree or stump; may excavate a cavity in trees with soft, dead wood.
FOOD: Eats adult, larvae, and eggs of insects in summer, and seeds of conifers and berries in winter.
REFERENCES: Bent 1946, Gibson in Farrand 1983b, Terres 1980.