Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Associated with eastern coniferous and deciduous forests, where it prefers woodland swamps and river bottoms. Also occurs in orchards, low, rich woodlands, woodlots, city parks, and suburban areas.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Natural cavities or woodpecker holes for nesting.
NEST: Usually nests in natural tree cavities or old woodpecker holes, generally 10 to 20 feet, but ranging from 3 to 90 feet, above the ground. Occasionally nests in bird boxes.
FOOD: Gleans food from branch and leaf surfaces during spring and summer and from branch surfaces and the ground in winter. Feeds primarily on insects, especially caterpillars; also eats snails; spiders; berries; seeds of sumac, yellow-poplar, alder, poison ivy, and bayberry; and some mast.
REFERENCES: DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Gillespie 1930, Johnsgard 1979, Laskey 1957, Martin et al. 1951, Terres 1980.