Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Generally associated with semiopen upland stands of deciduous or mixed forests; usually not abundant in coniferous forests. Found in mature and second-growth forests, especially those composed of immature or scrubby trees.
NEST: Builds nest in a slight depression in the ground, usually at the base of a tree or stump, beside a log, or sometimes in the roots of a fallen tree.
FOOD: Mainly eats insects, but it also gleans many spiders and daddy longlegs from tree trunks and larger tree limbs.
REFERENCES: Bent 1953a, Forbush and May 1955, Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Smith 1934.