Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally abundant; populations may be declining because of mesquite control programs.
HABITAT: Prefers mesquite and riparian woodlands, but also inhabits semiarid brush country, pecan groves, and upland oak stands.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Trees large enough for nest cavity.
NEST: Excavates nest hole in large living or dead trees, especially in mesquite, oak, and pecan. May also excavate holes in fence posts and telephone or electric poles; occasionally uses bird boxes.
FOOD: Gleans much of its food, which consists of insects, acorns, pecans, wild fruits, corn, and occasionally citrus.
REFERENCES: Bent 1939, Johnsgard 1979, Oberholser 1974a.