Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Inhabits boreal forests, leaving them only when food is scarce.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Conifer forests.
NEST: Builds a deep, saucer-shaped nest composed of lichens and twigs on branches of conifer trees. Frequently locates nest in a spruce tree, sometimes relatively close to the ground (2 to 70 feet). May breed during any month of the year, but mostly from January to May.
FOOD: Consumes a variety of foods, but seems to prefer seeds of Norway spruce and hemlock. Also eats insects, seeds of other conifers and deciduous trees, and some fruits.
REFERENCES: Forbush and May 1955, Terres 1980.