Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Locally common in conifer forests.
HABITAT: Inhabits coniferous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forests, humid pine-oak associations, and lowland pine savannah. Prefers forests with low canopy cover and is highly nomadic in response to changes in conifer seed production.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Conifer forests with abundant seed production.
NEST: Builds saddled nest well out on a branch or in a cluster of conifer leaves 5 to 80 feet above the ground. Nests during all months when suitable seed crops are available, but mostly from February through June.
FOOD: Feeds primarily on seeds of conifer trees, plus seeds of deciduous trees in summer. Also eats insects during spring and summer.
REFERENCES: Forbush and May 1955, Griscom 1937, Snyder 1954.