Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Favors moist, dense stands of fir near mountain lakes, but also inhabits humid coastal and interior montane coniferous forests. Occasionally found in deciduous forests with a dense understory and in tall shrub stands.
NEST: Builds a bulky nest on a horizontal branch or in a crotch of a tree or shrub, usually 10 to 15 feet above ground.
FOOD: Generally forages for food on the ground, but also gleans food from foliage and fruiting stems. Consumes a variety of vegetable and animal foods including insects, snails, earthworms, acorns, weed seeds, berries, and fruits.
REFERENCES: Beal 1915b, Terres 1980, Verner and Boss 1980.