Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Inhabits cool, mature, lowland deciduous or mixed forests, particularly damp situations and near swamps or water. In New England, also found on wooded slopes; has adapted to gardens and city parks.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Deciduous or mixed forests with tall trees.
NEST: Builds a compact cup nest on a horizontal limb, in a fork of a sapling or tree, or well hidden in dense shrubbery, generally 6 to 50 feet (average 10 feet) above ground.
FOOD: Gleans most of its food from the ground, but occasionally gleans insects from tree foliage. Eats insects, spiders, snails, earthworms, and berries.
REFERENCES: Beal 1915b, Brackbill 1943, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Terres 1980.