Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Prefers to be near water in habitats such as riparian woodlands, aspen groves, parklands, cultivated lands, and marshes; often found around human habitation. Uses bulrushes and pines for roosting and daytime resting places and displays from the tops of pine trees. In winter, frequents pastures and fields.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Marshlike areas.
NEST: Nests singly or in loose colonies on the ground or in trees and shrubs 20 to 30 feet above the ground. Places the cup-shaped nest usually at or near the end of a branch.
FOOD: Consumes a diet of about 68 percent vegetative and 32 percent animal material gleaned mostly from the ground. Commonly follows plows searching for insects.
REFERENCES: Beal 1900, Terres 1980, Williams 1952.