Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Rare and local.
HABITAT: Prefers open stands of pines and riparian trees, but also occurs in mixed pine and oak woods with shrubby undergrowth and on steep canyon slopes, from 5,000 to 8,500 feet. Favors open trees with bare, weedy, or grassy places.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Forest openings.
NEST: Places nest on a branch 9 to 45 feet above the ground, often sheltered by an overhanging stub of a branch. Builds nests in pines, oaks, and sycamores.
FOOD: Often forages for insects from the low scrubby understory or close to the trunk, low or at midlevel in pines.
REFERENCES: Bent 1942, Cottam and Knappen 1939, Phillips et al. 1964, Terres 1980, Terrill in Farrand 1983b.