Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Prefers predominantly coniferous forests of spruce and fir, frequenting low, swampy thickets bordering ponds and streams, spruce, cedar, tamarack and sphagnum bogs, spruce and alder swamps, wet mossy glades, and cool moist mountainsides.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Low, wet areas within coniferous forest.
NEST: Nests on or near the ground, sometimes at the base of a tree or in a cavity formed by upturned roots, but more often beside a hummock or mound and well-hidden in sphagnum moss or other vegetation. May also nest in a damp, mossy crevice of rocks, but always in a quiet, concealed site.
FOOD: Perches and feeds close to the ground, mainly on insects, which form 97 percent of the diet; occasionally eats a few berries.
REFERENCES: Beal 1912, Bent 1942, DeGraff et al. 1980, Forbush and May 1955, Terres 1980.