Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
HABITAT: Inhabits open mixed woodlands (especially northern hardwood-hemlock stands), northern coniferous forests with large trees, and larch bogs. Less often, inhabits second-growth hardwoods and pastures with cedars. It occurs rather commonly in pine barrens in Maine and jack pines in Michigan.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Some coniferous cover.
NEST: Builds a compact, deep cup nest, usually placed on a branch or in a fork of a conifer tree, 3 to 80 feet above the ground; occasionally uses a deciduous tree.
FOOD: Largely consumes insects gleaned from leaves and branches, and occasionally hawks flying insects.
REFERENCES: Griscom and Sprunt 1979, Harrison 1975, Pitelka 1940, Terres 1982.