Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
STATUS: Common in coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest.
HABITAT: During breeding season, primarily inhabits tall coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest, most commonly the more mountainous regions, usually near the crowns of tall trees. During migration and winter, moves into humid forests as well as pine-oak associations, open woodlands, and second-growth scrub forests.
SPECIAL HABITAT REQUIREMENTS: Tall, coniferous forests of the north Pacific Coast.
NEST: Nests in conifers, particularly firs, generally on the limb of the tree and not in the fork or crotch. Constructs nests of bark and slender twigs woven together, usually places them near the crowns of trees. In shorter trees, places nests as close as 10 or 12 feet to the ground.
FOOD: Consumes insects found on the needles of conifers as primary diet during spring and summer. (Winter food habits are not well documented.)
REFERENCES: Bent 1953a, Griscom and Sprunt 1979.